Need for raw materials/natural resources
● Desire to expand markets
● Desire to invest capital
● Outlet for products
● Economic strength from IR → need/right to stay economically strong*
● Bases for navy/merchant marine
● National security
● Prestige of global empire*
● Desire to spread Christianity
● Desire to spread Westernization*
● Social Darwinism*
● Increased European self-confidence*
● Advanced weaponry
● Advanced overseas travel (steamship)
● Medical advances
Direct: Mother country exerts direct political control over domestic and
political affairs by sending a ruler from mother country(form of imperial control)
Indirect: Mother country leaves local ruler in charge but tells them
what to do
Local rule controls domestic policy, but imperial rulers dictate foreign
policy(form of imperial control)
Sphere of Influence
European country has exclusive trading rights. Purely economic.(form of imperial control)
What led up
● countries glorified war
● soldiers wanted to prove selves
● leaders gained power
● pride of armies
● countries felt that because they were strong they should go to war (military
● Bismarck wanted peace to industrialize Germany, so he isolated France, wich
he felt was the biggest threat. He did this by forming alliances
○ First the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary
○ This became the Triple Alliance as they added Italy
○ He made a treaty with Russia in hopes of preventing a two-front war.
● When Kaiser William I died, William II became leader. He forcibly resigned
Bismarck and changed the foreign policy.
○ He let the treaty with Russia lapse, allowing France and Russia to ally
● Britain and France formed an entanté (friendship treaty- won't attack, might
defend if attacked)
● Britain and France's entanté was joined by Russia
● High tensions between countries over having empires, especially Africa.
● Germany's wanting to spread and industrialization- threatened Britain
● Germany's desire for expansion brought Britain and France together.
● Pan-Slavism- all Slaves looked to each other as sharing a common nationality
● Russia would protect Slavic nations as it was greatest Slavic nation
● Serbia wanted a large Slavic state and had a conflict with Austria-Hungary
over Bosnia and Herzegovina territories.
● France wanted revenge for Franco-Prussian war and return of Alsace and
● Germany had pride in industrialization and strength
Which countries were involved and why?
Austria saw the assassination of their Archduke as a chance to go to war
and expand. After securing their "blank check" of protection frompermission, leading Britain to declare war on Germany, since Belgium had
been guaranteed neutrality.
Triple Alliance withstanding, Italy remained neutral (and later joined the
Allies) since Germany had attacked (so Italy was not required to help them
under the terms of the treaty). Germany and Austria-Hungary became the
Central powers. The Ottomans joined later.
The Triple Entanté became the Allied Powers. Italy and Japan joined later,
then the U.S.
Germany, they sent an ultimatum to Serbia they knew Serbia would not
accept, knowing it would start the war.
Serbia looked to the great Slavic power Russia for help. The Russian Czar
asked Austria to back down, but they refused.
Austria declared war on Serbia and Russia began to mobilize. Germany
declared war on Russia.
Following the Schlieffen plan, Germany also declared war on France. To
attack immediately, they marched through the neutral Belgium without
The German plan to avoid 2-front war. They assumed that Russia would be
slow to mobilize, so they planned to quickly attack and beat France while
Russia would be mobilizing, then fight on the Russian front. They had to
march through Belgium to enact this plan.
What was trench warfare like?
This was the main type of warfare used. Soldiers dug trenches on either
side of "no-man's-land". They took turns going "over the top" and trying to
take each other's trenches, but the enemy solders were able to gun them
down from inside the trenches, creating a stalemate. Soldiers also lobbed
shells and gas bombs across the trenches from one another
What happened on
West (Britain, France, U.S. vs. Germany in France) was a stalemate
East (Germany vs. Russia in Russia) was mostly a stalemate as well
Italian diverted some Austrian troops from the Eastern Front
Ottoman the Turks controlled the Dardanelles, a strait between the
Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Allies lost the Battle of Gallipoli. Much of
the fighting was indirect- the European powers used Arab nationalists by
What was the Battle of
Germany attacked France and succeeded until they hit Marne, 40 miles
They were pushed back to, at closest, here. This was the first time it was
not a quick and easy victory, and in fact created a two-front-war for
What weapons were
Airplane flying aces fought "dogfights" but they didn't really matter.
U-Boat used by the Germans to stop Ally supplies; eventually drew U.S. into
Poison Gas bombs thrown- horrific. All the countries agreed to never
again use these in wartime.
Tanks were a new technology, but too vulnerable (armor could be pierced)
and clumsy to make a real difference.
What is total war; how
was WWI like this?
A total war is one in which all nations involved use all of their resources
toward the war effort. WWI was a total war.
Propaganda was used to influence people toward their side and against
the enemy. Every "other side" was accused of atrocities. Bad news was
censored to keep morale up.
Resources used at home were rationed so they could be sent to the front
What was the role of
women during WWI?
They took jobs to keep economy going, working in war industries, growing
food, joining women's forces, or working as nurses on the battlefield.
When the men returned, they gave up their jobs but got suffrage.
How were other
countries and colonies involved?
● Ottomans joined Central Powers
● Japan joined Allies because they wanted German colonies
● Italy was neutral, then joined the Allies
Why did the U.S. enter
What was the effect?
● Because of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare. They had
been hitting any ships they suspected of carrying supplies for the
Allies with their U-boats. This put American civilians in danger and
killed some as well, aside form destroying American ships even
though America was neutral.
● Britain also intercepted and gave America the Zimmerman note-
Germany had asked Mexico to attack the U.S. and promised to help
return lost land.
● The U.S. also joined due to cultural ties with Britain.
● The Allied troops received a huge boost in morale and were
replenished in soldiers and in supplies just as Germany was
Why did Russia
What was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia has suffered terribly throughout the war. The people were very
unhappy. Germany snuck Lenin back into the country, an the Revolution
After the Revolution, the new government signed an armistice and then a
treaty with Germany to end the war. This treaty, the Treat of Brest-Litovsk,
was very harsh to Russia- they had to sign away much land.
What were the costs
and results of the war?
● Huge monetary costs
● Political turmoil in Europe- especially Germany
● Many, many were dead. France, Germany, and Russia were hit
● People were bitter and disillusioned
● Unrest in colonies
● Economic ruin
● England and France especially wanted the losers to pay
● The end of the war and the Treaty of Versailles set the stage for
Wilson's Fourteen Points
Peace without victory- no punishment for losers, but rather to a peace
It's terms included:
● No secret treaties
● A league of countries to resolve conflict
● Freedom of the seas
● New borders- self determination (people decide how they want to
● Reduce size of armies and navies
● Remove economic barriers to trade
● Settle colonial claims with fairness to peoples
What was the Paris
Peace Conference like?
Big 3 met: Wilson of U.S., David Lloyd George of England, and George
Clemenceau of France were the main leaders. Wilson's ideas, the
Fourteen Points, did not have much weight. Countries wanted Germany
punished and to ensure that there would not ever be war again. France
especially wanted revenge on Germany and security. No defeated
countries were allowed to take part.
Treaty of Versailles
● Resolved war
● Blamed Germany for entire war
○ Forced to pay reparations ○ Lost Alsace and Lorraine to France
○ Lost colonies
○ Lost Poland
○ Parts of Germany became Czechoslovakia
○ Land gained from Russia became Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and
○ Anchluss (Austria+Germany) forbidden
○ No war materials
○ No planes or subs
○ Reduction of army
○ No troops in Rhineland
● Ottomans lost empire
● Italy, Japan wanted more
● Nobody was happy
● German resent → WWII
the League of Nations
The only one of Wilson's Points that was realized. A general association of
countries was set up to ensure peace and negotiate through conflict. It
gave people hope. The U.S. was not a part- we were isolationist and the
Senate refused to join the League.
Revolution of 1905
At the turn of the 20th century, Czar Nicholas ruled Russia. People, who
were very unhappy, hoped for change, but found him to be an autocratic
ruler. They marched peacefully at his palace in St. Petersburg to show
their unhappiness- and his soldiers opened fire on them. This day was
eventually known as "Bloody Sunday". The people revolted, so he created
the Duma, a legislature, to appease them. In reality, it had no power and
was quickly dissolved.
Czar Nicholas II
The autocratic ruler of Russia. He made several mistakes:
● A devastating defeat in the Russo-Japanese war
● The revolution of 1095 and his actions surrounding it
● Entering WWI and suffering terribly
● Going to fight and leaving the country with the Czarina, who let
Rasputin control the country
What caused the
After all of the suffering and war Russia had gone through, especially
highlighted by the Czar's mistakes, the conditions had become desperate
in the winter. There were shortages of everything- people began to strike
What was the political
scene like in pre-
Social Revolutionaries believed that a revolution would come from the
peasants. They would enact rural socialism, distribute land fairly, and
replace the Czar with a democratic government. They wanted to wait for
this revolution until Russia was industrialized.
Social Democrats were "Marxists" (not true Marxists) who believed that a
revolution would come out of the working class- the "dictator proletariats".
A Social Democrat leader. He was exiled from Russia, but the Germans
snuck him in during WWI. He led the Bolsheviks to take over the Russian
government and became the ruler of Russia.
What was the
When they were in public favor, the Bolshevik Red Guard took the
government offices and arrested the government leaders. The coup was
quick and almost bloodless.
Right away, the new government pulled out of the war, signing the treaty of
Brest-Litovsk. It also took over major industries and set up worker's
councils to run them. An election was held, but only Bolsheviks ended up
ruling, regardless of the results.
What was the civil
Many people were angry, that land had been given away and that the
elections hadn't been counted. This caused a civil war to begin, between
the Reds (Bolsheviks) and the Whites (anti-Revolution). 15 million died,
including the royal family. The Reds won, but Russia was left devastated.
What was the
A "New Economic Policy" to revive Russia's economy by temporarily
allowing capitalism- surplus crops and goods were sold for profit.
Russia became the USSR. (United Soviet Socialist Republic).
The capital was moved to Moscow.
The Bolsheviks became the Communist Party.
a legislative body in Russia's assembly
The minority people lead by Julius Martov that believed that there would be a revolution that would happen in due to time.
doing what is needed to achieve what the
Heir to the Austrian throne, whose assassination in 1914 was the spark that started World War I
Germany, Austria Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire.
The event that occurred January 1905 due to the marching of Czar, so the people decided to go on strike. The october manifesto was issued which was reforms and promises to the people so they could stop striking, but the Czar never followed up with the promises.
After World War I, a territory that was administered by a western power
Why did the "Reds" win
They were more organized and controlled most of major cities in Russia such as Petrogad, Moscow, and Central Russia.
formal agreement between two or more nations or powers to cooperate and come to one another's defense
World War I alliance of Britain, France and Russia; later joined by the United States and others
1917 Russian revolutionary group who seized power in Russia during the October Revolution and founded the Soviet Union
League of Nations
A group of more than 40 nations formed after World War I with the goal of settling problems through negotiation, not war
Lenin's secret police
A tool used in the war by spreading ideas to influence your cause or sway opinion in your favor.
Otto von Bismark
Chancellor of Prussia who brought about German Unification
Blood and Iron
how Otto von Bismark wanted to unify Germany
7 Weeks War
nickname for the Austro-Prussian War war that was fought between Austria and Prussia so Prussia could gain control over Holstein and the Gutland Peninsula
war between France and Prussia started by the Eems dispatch and ended when Prussia defeats France
the name of the reign that started with Kaiser Wilheilm and Otto von Bismark
A meeting of European countries that met to discuss the future of Africa and to draw political boundaries; no African nations were represented.
Congo River Valley
The African land claimed by Belgium; this caused France as well as Britian, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain to begin claiming parts of Africa
gas...tanks...airplanes...flame throwers. poison gas
caused by massive defeats WWI, food and fuel shortage, no confidence in govt
to prepare military forces for war