Anatomy and Physiology-Muscle Tissue

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Skeletal muscle tissue

Striated, mostly voluntary (respiratory is involuntary), multinucleate (more than one nucleus) so lots of DNA to code for protein synthesis, tendon attaches muscle to bone

cardiac muscle tissue

Involuntary, straited and branched muscles, circulates, in heart

smooth muscle tissue

no striations and involuntary, found in walls of hollow visceral organs such as the stomach urinary bladder and respiratory packages, forces food and other substances through internal body channels

Functions of muscular tissue

functions of this tissue; body movement, stabilizing body positions, storing/moving substances within the body, producing heat

Properties of muscular tissue

properties that enable muscle to function and contribute to homeostasis. Excitability, Contractility, Extensibility, Elasticity.

subcutaneous layer

separates skin form muscles, provides a pathway in blood vessels and nerves to enter and exit muscles, and protects muscles from physical trauma.

Fascia

lines the body wall and limbs that surround and support muscles, allows free movement of muscles, carries nerves and blood vessels, and fills space between muscles.

tendon

Rope-like Fibrous connective tissue bands that connect skeletal muscles to bones

aponeuroses

Wide and flat sheet-like tendon joining one muscle w/another or w/bone.

somatic motor neurons

provide nerve impulses that stimulate skeletal muscle to contract.

blood capillaries

bring in O2 and nutrients and rmove heat and waste products of muscle metabolism

100/myoblasts

Each muscle fiber has ___ or more nuclei b/c it arises from the fusion of many ____

Sarcolemma

muscle fiber's plasma membrane

transverse tubules

small, cylindrical invaginations of the sarcolemma of striated muscle fibers that conduct muscle action potentials toward the center of the muscle fiber.

myofibrils

Each muscle fibers contain hundreds of ____

Myofibrils

contractile elements of skeletal muscle

Excitability

ability to respond to stimuli by producing electrical signals-action potential

action potential

travels down plasma membrane and can stimulate contraction

contractility

generates force and pulls on attached points

Extensibility

ability to be stretched

elasticity

the tendency of a body to return to its original shape and length after it has been stretched or compressed

striated

alternating light and dark bands

deep fascia

dense irregular connective tissue, lines body walls and limbs, binds muscles that perform related functions, carries blood and lymph vessels, nerves

epimysium

OUTER COVERING OF A MUSCLE

perimysium

surrounds 10-100 muscle fibers and separates them into bundles called fascicles

endomysium

penetrates interior of each fascicles separates individual muscle fibers from one another.

sarcoplasmic reticulum

endoplasmic reticulum of a cell

sarcoplasm

cytoplasm

myoglobin (reddish protein)

sarcoplasm contains...

Oxygen mitochondria

sarcoplasm binds___ and releases it to ___

terminal cisterns

enlarged sacs of SR

calcium

Sarcoplasmic reticulum has expanded portions that store...

thick and thin filaments

Myofibril contain 2 smaller structures called....

A band

darker middle part of the sarcomere, contains thick filaments

I band

lighter, less dense contains thin filaments

thick filaments

have head and tail regions

tropomyosin

covers myosin binding sites on the actin molecules

troponin

holds tropomyosin strands in place

creatine phosphate

high energy compound built up when muscles rest

smallest

slow oxidative fibers are the (size)....

fatigue

SOF are very ___ resistant

aerobic

SOF has ___ generation of ATP

SOF have red or white fibers

red-high myoglobin content

SOF- slow or fast contractions?

Slow

fatigue

Fast oxidative fibers are ___ resistant

aerobic

FOF- ___ generation of ATP

Fast

FOF- slow or fast contractions?

largest

Fast glycolytic fibers are the ___ fibers

fatigue

FGF ___ easily

white

FGF white or red fibers?

white fibers

low myoglobin

glycogen

FGF have high levels of ___

anaerobic

FGF- ___ generation of ATP

strong, fast

FGF___, ___ contractions

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