The science of how living organisms obtain and use food to support the processes required for life.
a person who conducts and/or evaluates nutrition-related research.
a nutritionist who works as a clinician,assisting people in making healthy dietary choices.
a broad spectrum of academic and social disaplines related to nutrition.
a substance in foods used by the body for energy, maintenance of the body structures, or regulation of chemical processes.
a substance that must br obtained from the diet, because the body needs it and cannot make it in the required amounts.
a substance found in food and used by the body to promote health but not required to be consumed in the diet.
conditionally essential nutrient
normally nonessential nutrient that, under certain circumstances, becomes essential.
the class of nutrients that we need to consume in relatively large quantities.
the class of nutrients that we need to consume in relatively small quantities.
a substance that contains carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds.
a substance that does not contain carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds.
certified organic foods
plant ans animal foods that have been grown, harvested, and processes without conventional pesticides, fertilizers, growth promoters, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation.
a substance found in plants and thought to benefit human health above and beyond the provision of essential nutrients and energy.
a substance sound in animal foods and thought to benefit human health above and beyond the provision of essential nutrients and energy.
a food that contains a essential nutrient, phytochemical, or zoonutrient that is is thought to benefit human health.
the capacity to do work.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
a chemical used by the body when it needs to perform work.
a nutrient that the body can use to produce ATP.
a unit of measure used to express the amount of energy in a food.
kilocalorie (kcal or Calorie)
a device used to measure the amount of energy in a food.
steps used by scientist to explain observations.
a prediction about the relationship between variables.
(aka casual relationship)
when an alteration on one variable causes a change in another variable.
correlation (aka association)
when a change in one variable is related to a change in another variable.
an association between factors in which a change in one is related to a similar change in another.
negative correlation (aka inverse correlation)
an association between factors in which a change in one is related to change in the other in the opposite direction.
a relationship between two factor that is not influences or modified by another factor.
a relationship that involves one or more interactions.
when the relationship between two factors is influenced or modified by another factor.
behavioral component of our lives over which we may or may not have control (such as diet or tobacco use.)
an element or variable in our surroundings over which we may not have control such as pollution and temperature.
and inherited element or variable in our live that cannot be altered.
A study in which data are collected from a group of individuals who are not asked to change their behaviors in any way.
Framingham heart study
a large epidemiologic study begun in the 1940's designed to asses the relationship between lifestyle factors and risk for heart disease.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
a federally funded epidemiologic study begun in the 1970's to asses trends in diet and health in the U.S. population.
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)
a component of the U.S. Public Health Service whose mission is to compile statistical information to be used in improving the health of Americans.
an experiment in which something is altered or changed to determine its effects on something else.
a group of people ,animals, or cells in an intervention study that does not receive the experimental treatment.
Phenomenon in which study results are influenced by an unintentional alteration of a behavior by the study participants.
placebo effect (pla-CE-bo)
the phenomenon in which there is an apparent effect of the treatment because the individual expects or believes that it will work.
when the researcher influences the results of a study.
a human experiment in which the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned.
a human experiment in which neither the participants nor the scientist know to which group the participants have been assigned.
a "fake" treatment given to the control group that cannot be distinguished from the actual treatment.
when study participants have equal chances of being assigned to each experimental group.
a factor, other than the one of interest that might in fluence the outcome of an experiment.
the use of experimental animal subjects such as mice, rats, or primates.
cell culture system
specific type of cells that can grow in the laboratory and used for research purposes.
involving the use of cells or environments that are not part of a living organism.
involving the study of natural phenomena in a living organism.
primary (information) source
the publication in which a scientific finding was first published.
a publication that requires a groups of scientist to read and approve a study before it is published.
a computerized database that allows access to approximately 11 million biomedical journals.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
A governmental agency that monitors the nations's health in order to prevent disease outbreaks.
a measure of something within a specific period of time.
the number of deaths in a given period of time.
infant mortality rate
the number of infant (1 year of age) deaths per 1,000 live births in a given year.
the number of illnesses in a given period of time.
the number of people who were newly diagnosed with a condition in a given period of time.
the total number of people who have a condition in a given period of time.
a statistical prediction of the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a specific age.
graying of America
the phenomenon occurring in the untied states in which the proportion of elderly individuals in the population is increasing with time.
a condition that causes physiological or psychological discomfort, dysfunction, or distress.
a contagious illness caused by a pathogen such as a bacteria, virus, or parasite.
an illness that is not contagious.
the cause or origin of a disease.
a condition in which the immune system attacks an otherwise healthy part of the body.
chronic, degenerative disease
a noninfectious disease that develops slowly and persist over time.
a lifestyle, environmental, or genetic factor related to a person's chances of developing a disease.
the shift from undernutrition to overnutrition or unbalanced nutrition that often occurs simultaneously with the industrialization of a society.