Digestive system Anatomy

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physical (mechanical) digestion

begins with chewing of food in the mouth and continues with churning and mixing of food in the stomach

chemical digestion

different enzymes break down macromolecules to small organic molecules that can be absorbed

oral cavity

C
Function: receives food, and processes it through chewing

submandibular salivary gland

B
Function:produce salivary amylase, which aids in the breakdown of starches in the mouth; secrete mucin which aids in the lubrication of the food bolus as it travels through the esophagus

Liver

Function: detoxifies blood; stores iron and various vitamins; makes many plasma proteins; stores glucose as glycogen; breaks down glycogen to glucose to maintain blood glucose levels;produces urea from break down of amino acids; removes bilirubin from blood and excretes it as bile; helps regulate cholesterol levels

gallbladder

A
Function: stores excess bile produced by the liver; secretes bile into duodenum, when needed

Common Bile duct

I
conduction of bile from gallbladder

Large intestine

6
includes the cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal
Functions: absorbs water, salts, and some vitamins; stores indigestible material until eliminated as feces

vermiform appendix

C
small projection off the cecum Function:involved primarily in immune functions; haven for beneficial bacteria

parotid salivary gland

C
Function: secretes alpha-amylase which is the first step in the decomposition of starches during mastication

tongue

B
Function: chewing and swallowing food, as well as for speech

esophagus

A
Function: passageway for food to stomach

Stomach

Function: storage of food; acidity kills bacteria; starts digestion of protein

duodenum

Function: breakdown of food in the small intestine;regulates the rate of emptying of the stomach via hormonal pathways

head of pancreas

D
Function: as endocrine gland, it secretes insulin and glucagon to control blood glucose levels;
as exocrine gland, produces pancreatic juice containing sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid, and digestive enzymes- pancreatic amylase digests starch, trypsin digests protein, and lipase digests fat

Jejunum (small intestine)

Function: absorption of carbohydrates and proteins

Right Lobe (Liver)

Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins

Left Lobe (Liver)

Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins

Caudate Lobe (Liver)

Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins

Quadrate Lobe (Liver)

Function:Manufacture proteins, including albumin (to help maintain the volume of blood) and blood clotting factors; Synthesize, store, and process fats, including fatty acids and cholesterol; Form and secrete bile that contains bile acids to aid in the intestinal absorption of fats and the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K; Eliminate, by metabolizing and/or secreting, the potentially harmful biochemical products produced by the body, such as bilirubin from the breakdown of old red blood cells and ammonia from the breakdown of proteins; Detoxify, by metabolizing and/or secreting, drugs, alcohol, and environmental toxins

Labia (lips)

A
Function: food intake; articulation; facial expression

Vestibule (of mouth)

D
Function: allow range of motion of lips

Hard palate (of mouth)

G
Function: feeding and speech

Soft palate (of mouth)

F
Function: closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway; during sneezing, it protects the nasal passage by diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth

Uvula

E
Function: plays a role in the articulation of some sounds

Lingual frenulum

C
Function: connects the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity

Sublingual salivary gland

A
Function:produce mainly mucus

Cardiac sphincter

C
Function: prevent a back flow of materials back into the esophagus

Lesser curvature (of stomach)

B
Function: gives attachment to the two layers of the hepatogastric ligament (lesser omentum)

Greater curvature (of stomach)

H
Function: attachment to the gastrolienal ligament and the two layers of the greater omentum

Cardia

D
Function: help keep stomach acid in stomach

Fundus (of stomach)

E
Function: allows for an accumulation of stomach gases produced by chemical digestion

Body (of stomach)

F
Function: digestion of food

Rugae (of stomach)

G
series of ridges produced by the folding of the wall of the stomach
Function:allow the stomach to expand when needed

pylorus (of stomach)

A
Function: prevent intestinal contents from reentering the stomach when the small intestine contracts and to limit the passage of large food particles or undigested material into the intestine

pyloric sphincter (of stomach)

I
Function: prevent intestinal contents from reentering the stomach when the small intestine contracts and to limit the passage of large food particles or undigested material into the intestine

plicae circulares (intestines)

B
large valvular flaps projecting into the lumen of the bowel
Function:slow the passage of the food along the intestines, and afford an increased surface for absorption

Villi (intestine)

A
Function:slow the passage of the food along the intestines, and afford an increased surface for absorption

Cecum

D
Function: absorb fluids and salts that remain after completion of intestinal digestion and absorption and to mix its contents with a lubricating substance, mucus

Ascending colon

F
Function: remove the water and other key nutrients from waste material and recycle it back into the body

ileocecal valve

E
Function: to limit the reflux of colonic contents into the ileum

Transverse Colon

H
Function: remove the water and other key nutrients from waste material and recycle it back into the body

Descending Colon

I
Function: store food that will be emptied into the rectum

Sigmoid Colon

K
Function: to move stool into the rectum

Rectum

B
Function: store waste until full; expel waste out of the anus

Anal canal

A
Function: to transmit and lubricate stool as it passes externally from the rectum

External anal sphincter

L
Function: it keeps the anal canal and orifice closed

Internal anal sphincter

B
Function: helps the Sphincter ani externus to occlude the anal aperture and aids in the expulsion of the feces

Anus

A
Function: provide exit for feces

Haustrum (plural haustra)

G
Function: aid in the expansion and elongation of the large intestine; move food through the large intestine

Tenia coli

J
Function: contract lengthwise to produce the haustra; aid in moving food through large intestine

Body of pancreas

F
Function: as endocrine gland, it secretes insulin and glucagon to control blood glucose levels;
as exocrine gland, produces pancreatic juice containing sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid, and digestive enzymes- pancreatic amylase digests starch, trypsin digests protein, and lipase digests fat

Tail of pancreas

G
Function: as endocrine gland, it secretes insulin and glucagon to control blood glucose levels;
as exocrine gland, produces pancreatic juice containing sodium bicarbonate to neutralize stomach acid, and digestive enzymes- pancreatic amylase digests starch, trypsin digests protein, and lipase digests fat

Main pancreatic duct

E
Function: supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion

Accessory pancreatic duct

H
Function:supply pancreatic juices which aid in digestion

major duodenal papilla

B
Function: provides opening into duodenum for main pancreatic duct and common bile duct

hepatopancreatic ampulla and sphincter

C
Function: a muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through the ampulla of Vater into the second part of the duodenum

Left hepatic duct

L
Function: drains bile from the left functional lobe of the liver

Right hepatic duct

M
Function: drains bile from the right functional lobe of the liver

Common hepatic duct

K
Function: transports secretions from the liver into the intestines

Cystic duct

J
Function: transports secretions from the gallbladder into the intestines

Mucosa (of intestines)

E
Function: barrier to the noxious substances, antigens, and pathogenic organisms; immune functions; secretion of digestive enzymes; absorbs metabolic substrates, i.e., the breakdown products of digestion, vitamins, water, electrolytes, recyclable materials such as bile components and cholesterol and other substances

submucosa (of intestines)

F
Function: support the mucosal lining of the gastrointestinal tract

Muscularis Layer (of intestines)

A
Function:keep the mucosal surface and underlying glands in a constant state of gentle agitation to expel contents of glandular crypts and enhance contact between epithelium and the contents of the lumen

Circular muscle Layer (of intestines)

G
Function: responsible for gut movement called peristalsis

Longitunal muscle layer (of intestines)

H
Function: responsible for gut movement called peristalsis

Villi (of intestines)

C
Function:increase intestinal absorptive surface area; have enzymes on the surface for digestion; help the intestines to move food along the digestive pathway

Crypts (of intestines)

B
Function: house stem cells that serve to constantly replenish epithelial cells that die and are lost from the villi

Lacteals (of intestinal villi)

D
Function: collect absorbed chylomicrons which are taken to the rest of the body through the Lymph fluid

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