This is a set of anatomy flash cards created to help the students attending Brandon Valley High School.
The branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts.
The study of body functions.
Characteristics of Life
Change in position of the body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ.
Reaction to a change taking place inside or outside the body.
Increase in body size without change in shape.
Production of new organisms and new cells.
Obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods (Some forms of life do not use oxygen in respiration.)
Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used.
Passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.
Movement of substances from place to place in body fluids.
Changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms.
Removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions.
Requirements of Organisms
-Most abundant substance in the body
-Required for metabolic processes
-Required for transport
-Regulates body temperature
-Supply raw materials
-One-fifth of air
-Used to release energy from nutrients
-Form of energy
-Party controls rate of metabolic reactions
-Application of force to something.
a) Atmospheric pressure
b) Hydrostatic pressure
Important for breathing.
Keeps the blood flowing throughout the body.
A state of balance in which the body's internal environment remains in the normal range.
-Monitor aspects of the internal environment and corrects any changes.
b) Set Point
Provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment.
Tells what a particular value should be.
Cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.
Maintains homeostasis (ex: thirst, respiration, body temperature)
Changes cause additional similar changes.
Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element.
A particle composed of two or more joined atoms.
Large molecules formed when smaller molecules combine in complex ways.
Basic structural & functional unit of all living things.
Cells with a common origin, appearance, and function.
Group of cells having a common origin become specialized for certain physiological functions.
4 Types of Tissues in Animals
Covers and protects surfaces.
Joins parts together and provides support.
Allows movements to occur.
Responds to environmental stimuli and coordinates bodily activity.
Two or more different kinds of tissues joined together to perform a specific function.
A group of organs act together to perform a highly complex and specialized function.
A group of organ systems form an organism.
-Body cavity that includes the head, neck, and trunk.
-Two major cavities:
a) Dorsal Cavity
b) Ventral Cavity
Body cavity that includes the upper and lower limbs.
Can be subdivided into two parts:
a) Cranial Cavity
b) Vertebral Canal
Within the skull; houses the brain.
Contains the spinal cord within sections of the backbone (vertebrae).
Consists of a:
a) Thoracic Cavity
b) Abdominopelvic Cavity
Organs within a ventral cavity.
A sheetlike structure largely composed of skeletal muscle and connective tissue that separates thoracic and abdominal cavities; also, a caplike contraceptive device inserted in the vagina.
Composed of skin, skeletal muscles, and various bones.
Separates the thoracic cavity into two compartments.
Located in the mediastinum containing the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland.
Houses viscera like the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines.
Portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the hip bones.
Cavities within the Head
1. Oral Cavity
2. Nasal Cavity
3. Orbital Cavities
4. Middle Ear Cavities
Containing the teeth and tongue.
Located within the nose and divided into right and left portions by a nasal septum. Sever air-filled sinuses connect to the nasal cavity which include the frontal sinuses and sphenoidal sinuses.
Containing the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves.
Middle Ear Cavities
Containing the middle ear bones.
Cell of a gastric gland that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.
Membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs.
Refers to the membrane attached to the wall of a cavity.
Refers to the membrane that is deeper-toward the interior and covers an internal lung.
Serous membranes that enclose the lungs and line the chest wall.
Potential space between pleural membranes.
Thin membrane that covers the heart's surface.
Potential space between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium.
The lining membranes in the abdominopelvic cavity.
Organs of this system include the skin and various accessory organs, such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.
Consists of bones, ligaments, and cartilages.
Organs of this system include muscles.
Organs of this system include the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.
Electrochemical signals used by cells within the nerve system in order to communicate with one another.
Includes all the glands that secrete chemical messages called hormones.
A substance that an endocrine gland secretes and that the blood or body fluids transport.
Organs in this system include the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood.
Composed of the lymphatic vessels, lymph fluids, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen; sometimes considered part of the cardiovascular system.
Organs of this system receive foods from the outside and break them down. Organs of this system include the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.
Organs of this system move air in and out and exchange gases between the blood and the air. Organs in this system consist of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.
Organs of this system include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
Organs of this system include the scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, urethra, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
Standing erect, face forward, with upper limbs at the sides and the palms forward; left and right refer to the left and right of a body in anatomical position.
A body part is above or closer to the head.
A body part is below another or toward the feet.
Meaning towards the front.
Opposite of anterior; it means toward the back.
Relates to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves.
Towards the side with respect to the imaginary midline.
Describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment than another body part.
The opposite of proximal; a particular body part is farther from a point of attachment than another body part.
Situated near the surface.
Describes parts that are more internal.
Refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions.
Refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Refers to a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
1. Epigastric Region
2. Left Hypochondriac Region
3. Right Hypochondriac Region
4. Umbilical Region
5. Left Lumbar Region
6. Right Lumbar Region
7. Hypogastric Region
8. Left Iliac Region
9. Right Iliac Region
Refers to the upper middle portion.
Left Hypochondriac Region
Lie on the left side of the epigastric region.
Right Hypochondriac Region
Lie on the right side of the epigastric region.
Refers to the middle portion.
Left Lumbar Region
Lie on the left side of the umbilical region.
Right Lumbar Region
Lie on the right side of the umbilical region.
Refers to the lower middle portion.
Left Iliac Region
Lie on the left side of the hypogastric region.
Right Iliac Region
Lie on the right side of the hypogastric region.
The region between the thorax and pelvis.
The point of the shoulder.
The space in front of the elbow.
The reproductive organs.
The depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh (groin).
The region of the lower back between the ribs and the pelvis (loin).
The lower posterior region of the head.
The palm of the hand.
The front of the knee.
The region between the anus and the external reproductive organs (perineum).
The sole of the foot.
The area behind the knee.
The posterior region between the hipbones.
The middle of the thorax, anteriorly.
The instep of the foot.
The spinal column.
Branch of medical science dealing with the heart and heart diseases.
Study of the structure, function, and abnormalities of cells.
Study of the skin and its diseases.
Study of hormones, hormone-secreting glands, and their diseases.
Study of the factors determining the distribution and frequency of health-related conditions occurring within a defined human population.
Study of the stomach and intestines and their diseases.
Branch of medicine dealing with older individuals and their medical problems.
Study of the female reproductive system and its diseases.
Study of the blood and blood diseases.
Study of the structure and function of tissues, also called microscopic anatomy.
Study of the body's resistance to infectious disease.
Study of newborns and the treatment of their disorders.
Study of the structure, function, and diseases of the kidneys.
Study of the nervous system and its disorders.
Branch of medicine dealing with pregnancy and childbirth.
Study of cancers.
Study of the eye and eye diseases.
Branch of medicine dealing with the muscular and skeletal systems and their problems.
Study of the ear, throat, and larynx, and their diseases.
Study of the structural and functional changes that disease causes.
Branch of medicine dealing with children and their diseases.
Study of drugs and their uses in the treatment of diseases.
Study of the care and treatment of feet.
Branch of medicine dealing with the mind and its disorders.
Study of X rays and radioactive substances and their uses in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders.
Study of poisonous substances and their effects upon body parts. See More