Hole's Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology 8th Edition: Chapter 1- Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology

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This is a set of anatomy flash cards created to help the students attending Brandon Valley High School.

Anatomy

The branch of science that deals with the structure (morphology) of body parts.

Physiology

The study of body functions.

Characteristics of Life

1. Movement
2. Responsiveness
3. Growth
4. Reproduction
5. Respiration
6. Digestion
7. Absorption
8. Circulation
9. Assimilation
10. Excretion

Movement

Change in position of the body or of a body part; motion of an internal organ.

Responsiveness

Reaction to a change taking place inside or outside the body.

Growth

Increase in body size without change in shape.

Reproduction

Production of new organisms and new cells.

Respiration

Obtaining oxygen, removing carbon dioxide, and releasing energy from foods (Some forms of life do not use oxygen in respiration.)

Digestion

Breakdown of food substances into simpler forms that can be absorbed and used.

Absorption

Passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids.

Circulation

Movement of substances from place to place in body fluids.

Assimilation

Changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms.

Excretion

Removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions.

Requirements of Organisms

1. Water
2. Foods
3. Oxygen
4. Heat
5. Pressure

Water

-Most abundant substance in the body
-Required for metabolic processes
-Required for transport
-Regulates body temperature

Food

-Supply energy
-Supply raw materials

Oxygen

-One-fifth of air
-Used to release energy from nutrients

Heat

-Form of energy
-Party controls rate of metabolic reactions

Pressure

-Application of force to something.
-Two types:
a) Atmospheric pressure
b) Hydrostatic pressure

Atmospheric Pressure

Important for breathing.

Hydrostatic Pressure

Keeps the blood flowing throughout the body.

Homeostasis

A state of balance in which the body's internal environment remains in the normal range.

Homeostatic Mechanisms

-Monitor aspects of the internal environment and corrects any changes.
-Three types:
a) Receptors
b) Set Point
c) Effectors

Receptors

Provide information about specific conditions (stimuli) in the internal environment.

Set Point

Tells what a particular value should be.

Effectors

Cause responses that alter conditions in the internal environment.

Negative Feedback

Maintains homeostasis (ex: thirst, respiration, body temperature)

Positive Feedback

Changes cause additional similar changes.

Atom

Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of that element.

Molecule

A particle composed of two or more joined atoms.

Macromolecule

Large molecules formed when smaller molecules combine in complex ways.

Cell

Basic structural & functional unit of all living things.

Tissue

Cells with a common origin, appearance, and function.

Differentiation

Group of cells having a common origin become specialized for certain physiological functions.

4 Types of Tissues in Animals

1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscular
4. Nervous

Epithelial Tissue

Covers and protects surfaces.

Connective Tissue

Joins parts together and provides support.

Muscular Tissue

Allows movements to occur.

Nervous Tissue

Responds to environmental stimuli and coordinates bodily activity.

Organ

Two or more different kinds of tissues joined together to perform a specific function.

Organ System

A group of organs act together to perform a highly complex and specialized function.

Organism

A group of organ systems form an organism.

Axial Portion

-Body cavity that includes the head, neck, and trunk.
-Two major cavities:
a) Dorsal Cavity
b) Ventral Cavity

Appendicular Portion

Body cavity that includes the upper and lower limbs.

Dorsal Cavity

Can be subdivided into two parts:
a) Cranial Cavity
b) Vertebral Canal

Cranial Cavity

Within the skull; houses the brain.

Vertebral Canal

Contains the spinal cord within sections of the backbone (vertebrae).

Ventral Cavity

Consists of a:
a) Thoracic Cavity
b) Abdominopelvic Cavity

Viscera

Organs within a ventral cavity.

Diaphragm

A sheetlike structure largely composed of skeletal muscle and connective tissue that separates thoracic and abdominal cavities; also, a caplike contraceptive device inserted in the vagina.

Thoracic Cavity

Composed of skin, skeletal muscles, and various bones.

Mediastinum

Separates the thoracic cavity into two compartments.

Thoracic Viscera

Located in the mediastinum containing the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland.

Abdominal Cavity

Houses viscera like the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines.

Pelvic Cavity

Portion of the abdominopelvic cavity enclosed by the hip bones.

Cavities within the Head

1. Oral Cavity
2. Nasal Cavity
3. Orbital Cavities
4. Middle Ear Cavities

Oral Cavity

Containing the teeth and tongue.

Nasal Cavity

Located within the nose and divided into right and left portions by a nasal septum. Sever air-filled sinuses connect to the nasal cavity which include the frontal sinuses and sphenoidal sinuses.

Orbital Cavities

Containing the eyes and associated skeletal muscles and nerves.

Middle Ear Cavities

Containing the middle ear bones.

Parietal pleura

Cell of a gastric gland that secretes hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor.

Visceral Pleura

Membrane that covers the surfaces of the lungs.

Parietal

Refers to the membrane attached to the wall of a cavity.

Visceral

Refers to the membrane that is deeper-toward the interior and covers an internal lung.

Pleural Membranes

Serous membranes that enclose the lungs and line the chest wall.

Pleural Cavity

Potential space between pleural membranes.

Visceral Pericardium

Thin membrane that covers the heart's surface.

Pericardial Cavity

Potential space between the visceral pericardium and parietal pericardium.

Peritoneal Membranes

The lining membranes in the abdominopelvic cavity.

Integumentary System

Organs of this system include the skin and various accessory organs, such as the hair, nails, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands.

Skeletal System

Consists of bones, ligaments, and cartilages.

Muscular System

Organs of this system include muscles.

Nervous System

Organs of this system include the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sense organs.

Never Impulses

Electrochemical signals used by cells within the nerve system in order to communicate with one another.

Endocrine System

Includes all the glands that secrete chemical messages called hormones.

Hormone

A substance that an endocrine gland secretes and that the blood or body fluids transport.

Cardiovascular System

Organs in this system include the heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood.

Lymphatic System

Composed of the lymphatic vessels, lymph fluids, lymph nodes, thymus gland, and spleen; sometimes considered part of the cardiovascular system.

Digestive System

Organs of this system receive foods from the outside and break them down. Organs of this system include the mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine.

Respiratory System

Organs of this system move air in and out and exchange gases between the blood and the air. Organs in this system consist of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

Urinary System

Organs of this system include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

Reproductive System

Organs of this system include the scrotum, testes, epididymides, vasa deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis, urethra, ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.

Anatomical Position

Standing erect, face forward, with upper limbs at the sides and the palms forward; left and right refer to the left and right of a body in anatomical position.

Superior

A body part is above or closer to the head.

Inferior

A body part is below another or toward the feet.

Anterior (Ventral)

Meaning towards the front.

Posterior (Dorsal)

Opposite of anterior; it means toward the back.

Medial

Relates to an imaginary midline dividing the body into equal right and left halves.

Lateral

Towards the side with respect to the imaginary midline.

Proximal

Describes a body part that is closer to a point of attachment than another body part.

Distal

The opposite of proximal; a particular body part is farther from a point of attachment than another body part.

Superficial

Situated near the surface.

Deep

Describes parts that are more internal.

Sagittal

Refers to a lengthwise cut that divides the body into right and left portions.

Transverse

Refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.

Coronal

Refers to a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.

Abdominal Regions

1. Epigastric Region
2. Left Hypochondriac Region
3. Right Hypochondriac Region
4. Umbilical Region
5. Left Lumbar Region
6. Right Lumbar Region
7. Hypogastric Region
8. Left Iliac Region
9. Right Iliac Region

Epigastric Region

Refers to the upper middle portion.

Left Hypochondriac Region

Lie on the left side of the epigastric region.

Right Hypochondriac Region

Lie on the right side of the epigastric region.

Umbilical Region

Refers to the middle portion.

Left Lumbar Region

Lie on the left side of the umbilical region.

Right Lumbar Region

Lie on the right side of the umbilical region.

Hypogastric Region

Refers to the lower middle portion.

Left Iliac Region

Lie on the left side of the hypogastric region.

Right Iliac Region

Lie on the right side of the hypogastric region.

Abdominal

The region between the thorax and pelvis.

Acromial

The point of the shoulder.

Antebrachial

The forearm.

Antecubital

The space in front of the elbow.

Axillary

The armpit.

Brachial

The arm.

Buccal

The cheek.

Carpal

The wrist.

Celiac

The abdomen.

Cephalic

The head.

Cervical

The neck.

Costal

The ribs.

Coxal

The hip.

Crural

The leg.

Cubital

The elbow.

Digital

The finger.

Dorsal

The back.

Femoral

The thigh.

Frontal

The forehead.

Genital

The reproductive organs.

Gluteal

The buttocks.

Inguinal

The depressed area of the abdominal wall near the thigh (groin).

Lumbar

The region of the lower back between the ribs and the pelvis (loin).

Mammary

The breast.

Mental

The chin.

Nasal

The nose.

Occipital

The lower posterior region of the head.

Oral

The mouth.

Orbital

The eye cavity.

Otic

The ear.

Palmar

The palm of the hand.

Patellar

The front of the knee.

Pectoral

The chest.

Pedal

The foot.

Pelvic

The pelvis.

Perineal

The region between the anus and the external reproductive organs (perineum).

Plantar

The sole of the foot.

Popliteal

The area behind the knee.

Sacral

The posterior region between the hipbones.

Sternal

The middle of the thorax, anteriorly.

Tarsal

The instep of the foot.

Umbilical

The navel.

Vertebral

The spinal column.

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