Music Content (113)

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These flash cards are to help my fellow music ed majors that are preparing to PASS the praxis II music content knowledge test. Hope this helps!

Antiquity

500AD-500BC

Medieval

500BC-1300

Renaissance

1300-1600

Baroque

1600-1750

Classical

1750-1820

Romantic

1820-1900

20th century

1900-

Aria

solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment

Bouree

French baroque dance in fast duple meter

Cantata

Music composition using sacred texts(baroque)

Chanson

A french polyphonic song (late middle ages & renaissance)

Chorale

Protestant hymn melody (baroque)

Choral prelude

composition for an organ (baroque)

Concerto

composition for an orchestra & 1 or more solo instrument (classical period)

Divertimento

chamber music(classical period)

Etude

a study piece composition for development part of technique

Fanfare

loud brass instruments (esp. trumpets)

Fugue

imitative polyphonic composition, themes repeat

Gavotte

french peasant dance (baroque)

Gigue

popular baroque dance

Madrigal

A secular song for 2 or 3 unaccompanied voices (renaissance)

Motet

polyphonic composition sacred text w/ out accompaniment (renaissance)

Opera

A musical dramatic work

Organum

plain chant, note against note counterpoint (medieval)

Passacaglia

continuous variations on ground bass, similar to chaconne (baroque)

Recitative

spoken song (romantic)

Rondeau

french lyrical poem (renaissance)

Sarabande

most popular baroque instrumental dance

Sonata

composition for 1 or more solo instruments, one of which is usually a keyboard instrument, usually consisting of of 3 or 4 independent movements varying in key, mood, and tempo

Song cycle

group of completed songs (like a cd/ romantic)

string quartet

2 violins, viola, & a cello (classical)

Suite

An instrumental composition consisting of a series of varying movements or pieces

symphonic poem

orchestral form (ex. Lizst) (romantic)

symphony

an extended piece in 3 or more movements for a symphony orchestra

Toccata

keyboard piece, free in form, that displays dexterity (baroque)

Martele'

(bowing technique)hammered stroke with a crisp

De'tache'

(bowing technique)one bow per note

Ricochet

(bowing technique) bouncing bow quickly

Loure'

(bowing technique)seperate slurred notes used in slow tempos

Harmonic Series

8va-5-4

During the 18th & 19th centuries involved improvisation as part of the performance

Cadenza

Rim shot

(drumming technique)one loud hit

Flam

(drumming technique) 1 beat preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba-dop)

Drag

(drumming technique)2 beats preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba/da-bop)

Paradiddle

(drumming technique)par-a-di-dle

Refined strings

classical period

Mozart

classical period

20th century composers

Bartok, Babbitt, Aaron Copeland, Phillip Glass

Romantic composers

Chopin, Brahms,Beethoven, Mahler, Mendelssohn

Classical composers

Mozart, Haydn, Gluck

Medieval Composers

Hildegard von Bingen, Perotin

Renaissance composers

Guillaume dufay, orlando di Lasso, Palestrina, William Byrd

Medieval

monophonic, plain chant

Renaissance

polyphonic, no instruments, motet &madrigal

Baroque

small orchestras w/ basso continuo, keyboards

Classical

simple melodies, strings dominate, alberti bass

Baroque Composers

Bach, Handel, Moteverdi, Vivaldi

Bebop(Jazz)

Complex jazz style developed in the 1940's. Also bop. A jazz style which developed in the 1940's characterized by very fast or very slow tempos with improvised lines of eighth notes, irregular accents, and an extended harmony. The patterns often ended with an abrupt two-note figure that sounded like "be-bop".

Blues

American form of folk music related to jazz. It is based on a simple, repetitive, poetic-musical structure.

Dixeland(Jazz)

(1917-1920)An early style of jazz originating in the early 20th century in New Orleans with a simple, cheerful character.

Gospel

(late 19th century) stands for the type of religious popular song that succeeded the SPIRITUAL

Motown

is the term that refers to the style of music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the late 1960's. The Sound was a mixture of several popular musical styles and can be considered a form of soul music.

Ragtime(jazz)

An American style of music characterized by "ragged" or syncopated rhythms. It was popular between the 1890's and the 1910's. (Scott Joplin)

Rap

An American style of rhythmic chanting consisting of improvised rhymes performed to rhythmic accompaniment.

Rhythm & Blues

An American pop music style popular between the 1940's and 1960's.played by an ensemble, generally with a lead vocalist or instrumentalist, a rhythm section, and an ensemble of voices, wind instruments, or guitar.

Swing

American style of jazz music originating in the 1930's. characterized by "big band" instrumentation, a greater emphasis on solo passages, and a 4/4 tempo with an almost even emphasis on each beat of the measure.

Who composed "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun?"

Claude Debussy

Who composed " The Four Seasons?"

Antonio Vivaldi

What is the name of the numbering scheme used to categorize mozarts wk?

Köchel Verzeichnis or Köchel Catalog

A term used to classify a composition in relation to the composer's other compositions.

Abbreviated as "Op." (work) or "Opp." (works)

a composition by Richard Strauss for cello, viola and large orchestra.

Don Quixote, op. 35

Composer of "moonlight sonata"

Ludwig van Beethoven

Abbreviation for Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, used to catalogue the compositions of J. S. Bach.

BWV

Famous performers of the swing era

Duke Ellington & Benny Goodman

What instrument does Wynton Marsalis play?

trumpet

What instrument does Benny goodman play?

Clarinet

Famous drum soloist?

Gene Krupa

What instrument does Louis Armstrong Play?

trumpet

What instrument does John Coltrane Play?

saxophone

What instrument does thelonious monk play?

piano

Bebop jazz artist that played the trumpet, piano, and trombone

Dizzy Gillespie

1st scale degree

Ionian (I)

2nd scale degree

Dorian (ii)

3rd scale degree

phrygian (iii)

4th scale degree

Lydian (IV)

5th scale degree

Mixolydian (V)

6th scale degree

Aeolian (vi)

7th Scale degree

Locrian (vii)

Deceptive Cadence

V-?

Authentic Cadence

V-I

Plagal Cadence

IV-I

Half Cadence

ends on V

German Augmented sixth

augmented 6+ minor3

Italian Augmented Sixth

augmented 6+ Major3

French Augmented sixth

augmented 6+ M2

Accelerando

Gradually accelerating or getting faster

Anacrusis

An Upbeat or a pickup note(s); a term used for unstressed notes at the beginning of a phrase of music.

Augmentation

Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original.

Diminution

A Renaissance and Baroque ornamentation which consists of the restatement of a melody in which the note values are shortened, usually by half.

Hemiola

In early music, this term meant the ratio of 3:2, employed musically in two senses: the ratio of the perfect fifth, whose musical value is 3:2, and the rhythmic relation of three notes in the time of two, i.e., the triplet. In the Baroque era hemiola was used in dance music in the sense that it denoted the articulation of two measures of triple meter as if they were three measures of duple meter.

Hocket

A Medieval practice of composition in which two voices would move in such a manner that one would be still while the other moved and vice-versa. Sometimes this was achieved by taking a single melody and breaking it into short, one or two note phrases, and dividing the phrases between the two voices so that a quick back-and-forth movement of the melody would be heard

syncopation

Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse of a composition by means of a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off-beat.

monophony

Music that is written for only one voice or part

polyphony

A style of composition that has many voices, each with its own melody, thus creating a rich texture of sound.

homophony

there is a distinct melody with accompanying harmony, but all move in the same rhythmic pattern.

heterophony

The practice of two or more musicians simultaneously performing slightly different versions of the same melody.

crescendo

get loud

decrescendo

get soft

marcato

marked, emphatic

ritardando

slow down

accent

emphasis

legato

smooth and connected

rubato

perform freely

staccato

detached & seperated

poco a poco

little by little

alla breve

A tempo marking indicating a quick duple meter

adagio

slow

andante

walking tempo

allegro

fast

vivace

very fast

rallentando

slowing down

Ritenuto

held back & slowing down

Timbre

The quality of a sound; that component of a tone that causes different instruments (for example a guitar and a violin) to sound different from each other while they are both playing the same note.

retrograde

This occurs when in a melodic line is performed backwards.

Aerophones

Instruments that produce sound by using air

chordophones

instruments that produce sound by vibrating string

membranophones

drums

Idiophones

percussion (ex. cymbals)

(k-12) vocal rage k-4

about an octave starting form middle C

What is the natural minor scale mode?

Aeolian

makes up the pentatonic scale

1,2,3,5,6 (C,D,E,G,A)

Tremolo

refers to a repeating pitch or pattern that is quick & continuous

Trill

an ornamentation completed by rapid moving between 2 pitches that are sequential within the key of the particular piece

Basses can sing in the range of...

D2-C4 or middle C

Baritones can sing in the range of ..

G2- F4

Tenors can sing in the range of ..

B2- G4

Contraltos can sing in the range of ..

D3-D5

Mezzo sopranos can sing in the range of..

A3-F5

Sopranos can sing in the range of ...

C4-C6 or high C

The registers of the voice

chest, middle, and head

Who developed the adaptation of solfege for the musical instruction of children?

Zolta'n Koda'ly

steps of conducting

1. preparation 2. ictus 3. rebound 4.Penultimate beat placing 5. Final beat placing

indicated by the speed of the acceleration and the force of the ictus

attack

the pt of the rebound

ictus

indicated by the size of the preparation

dynamics

is the space between the ictus of one beat and the ictus of the next

preparation

is indicated by the shape of the preparation

quality

What is the term for a musical expression repeated several times?

ostinato

break or interruption in music

caesura

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