"Adam's Apple" to back of head
Tops of shoulders
Radial forearm to thumb & pointer finger
Ring finger & pinkie
Body of the sternum
Where bra wire would lie
Top of underwear line
Groin to interior thighs
Fibula to first 3 toes
Last 2 toes to middle of calf
Back of knees and thighs
Circle around butt
resulting from hyperextension injuries and presenting as more UE deficits vs. LE deficits
hemi-section of the cord resulting in ipsilateral spastic paralysis and loss of position sense and contralateral loss of pain and thermal sense
caused by flexion injuries, loss bilaterally of motor function, pain & temp.
injury of the sacral cord & lumbar nerve roots resulting in LE motor & sensory loss & a relfexic bowel & bladder
Cauda Equina Syndrome
injury at the L1 level & below resulting in lower motor neuron lesion; flaccid paralysis with no spinal reflex activity
C1 to T1. This individual can experience a loss of feeling and/or movement in their head, neck, shoulder, arms and/or upper chest.
T2 to S5. Loss of sensory & motor control of the chest, stomach, hips, legs and feet.
Limited movement of head and neck
Breathing: Depends on a ventilator for breathing.
Communication: Talking is sometimes difficult, very limited or impossible. Communication can be accomplished independently with a mouth stick and assistive technologies like a computer for speech or typing.
Effective verbal communication allows the individual with SCI to direct caregivers in the person's daily activities, like bathing, dressing, personal hygiene, transferring as well as bladder and bowel management.
Daily tasks: Assistive technology allows for independence in tasks such as turning pages, using a telephone and operating lights and appliances.
Mobility: Can operate an electric wheelchair by using a head control, mouth stick, or chin control. A power tilt wheelchair also for independent pressure relief.
Usually has head and neck control.
Individuals at C4 level may shrug their shoulders.
Breathing: May initially require a ventilator for breathing, usually adjust to breathing full-time without ventilatory assistance.
Daily tasks: With specialized equipment, some may have limited independence in feeding and independently operate an adjustable bed with an adapted controller.
Typically has head and neck control, can shrug shoulder and has shoulder control. Can bend his/her elbows and turn palm. BICEPTS
Daily tasks: Independence with eating, drinking, face washing, brushing of teeth, face shaving and hair care after assistance in setting up specialized equipment.
Health care: Can manage their own health care by doing self-assist coughs and pressure reliefs by leaning forward or side -to-side.
Mobility: May have strength to push a manual wheelchair for short distances over smooth surfaces. A power wheelchair with hand controls is typically used for daily activities.
Driving may be possible after being evaluated by a qualified professional to determine special equipment needs
Has movement in head, neck, shoulders, arms and wrists. Can shrug shoulders, bend elbows,turn palms up and down and extend wrists. TENODESIS GRASP
Daily tasks: With help of some specialized equipment, can perform with greater ease and independence, daily tasks of feeding, bathing, grooming, personal hygiene and dressing. May independently perform light housekeeping duties.
Health care: Can independently do pressure reliefs, skin checks and turn in bed.
Mobility: Some individuals can independently do transfers but often require a sliding board. Can use a manual wheelchair for daily activities but may use power wheelchair for greater ease of independence.
Has similar movement as an individual with C6, with added ability to straighten his/her elbows. TRICEPTS
Daily tasks: Able to perform household duties. Need fewer adaptive aids in independent living.
Health care: Able to do wheelchair pushups for pressure reliefs.
Mobility: Daily use of manual wheelchair. Can transfer with greater ease.
Has added strength and precision of fingers that result in limited or natural hand function.
Daily tasks: Can live independently without assistive devices in feeding, bathing, grooming, oral and facial hygiene, dressing, bladder management and bowel management.
Mobility: Uses manual wheelchair. Can transfer independently.
Has normal motor function in head, neck, shoulders, arms, hands and fingers. Has increased use of rib and chest muscles, or trunk control.
Daily tasks: Should be totally independent with all activities.
Mobility: A few individuals are capable of limited walking with extensive bracing. This requires extremely high energy and puts stress on the upper body, offering no functional advantage. Can lead to damage of upper joints.
Has added motor function from increased abdominal control.
Daily tasks: Able to perform unsupported seated activities.
Mobility: Same as T2-T6
Health care: Has improved cough effectiveness.
Has additional return of motor movement in hips and knees.
Mobility: Walking can be a viable function, with the help of specialized leg and ankle braces. Lower levels walk with greater ease with the help of assistive devices.
Depending on level of injury, there are various degrees of return of voluntary bladder, bowel and sexual functions.
Mobility: Increased ability to walk with fewer or no supportive devices.
Complete, no sensory or motor function is preserved S4-S5.
Incomplete, sensory but no motor function is preserved below level of injury.
Incomplete, sensory & motor function is preserved below level of injury, muscle grade less than 3/5.
Incomplete, sensory & motor function is preserved below level of injury, muscle grade greater than 3/5.
Normal, sensory & motor function is normal.
Precautions & Contraindications
decreased vital capacity, autonomic dysreflexia, orthostatic hypotension, pressure ulcers, bowel & bladder dysfunction, thermal dysregulation, pain, fatigue, deep vein thrombosis, spasticity & spasms, heterotopic ossification, osteoporosis, decreased motor skill for sexual intimacy
a potentially life-threatening situation for SCI patients which requires immediate attention, episodic high blood pressure leading to: throbbing headaches, profuse sweating, nasal stuffiness, flushing of the skin above the level of the lesion, bradycardia, apprehension and anxiety
Causes: painful stimuli, tight clothing, hanging limbs cutting off blood circulation, blocked urinary catheter, stool impaction