Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum (2 parts)
As a large, slowly rotating object becomes smaller, it must rotate faster. If more matter is pulled into a planet, it will spin faster.
A shockwave formed from the death of a blue giant, making the star explode and causing fusion into nearly every element.
Death of a blue giant
The blue giant runs out of hydrogen to fuse, and begins fusing helium into carbon, becoming a red supergiant. Fusion also forms heavier elements like oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon. Eventually, iron accumulates in the core. Iron doesn't release energy when it fuses, so fusion stops. Without any radiation pressure, all the matter collapses on the core, forming a supernova.
Death of a yellow dwarf.
The yellow dwarf runs out of hydrogen to fuse, so it collapses, increasing temperatures, allowing it to fuse helium into carbon. The produces lots of heat, expanding the outside, forming a red giant. When most of the helium is gone, the white-hot core pushes away the outside and becomes a white dwarf.
Smaller main sequence stars like our sun. Can continue fusion for several billions of years.
Very big, hot main sequence stars which may use up all of their fuel in just a few hundred million years.
main sequence stars
Stars which are stable, and fuse hydrogen into helium. The radiation pressure equals the force of gravity. Bigger stars use fuel faster.
Pressure pushing matter outward, caused by fusion in the core of a star.
The process where atoms are smashed together so that their nuclei merge, forming heavier elements.
A few cm.'s long in wavelength. Cause water to vibrate, generating heat. Can pass through clouds, and measure temperature in outer space.
A ball of hydrogen gas formed from a nebula.
Formation of a star from a nebula
A nebula begins to collaps, pulling hydrogen gas and dust together. The gravity becomes greater, eventually forming a huge protostar. The gravity pulls in more and more hydrogen, increasing the temperature. At several million degrees Celsius, nuclear fusion starts, forming a star.
3 smallest elements
Hydrogen/deuterium, helium, lithium.