The main energy source for most living cells?
These are the primary compounds that make up the cell membrane.
Proteins and phospholipids
Composed of glycerol and fatty acids
The genetic material of cells.
Antibodies and enzymes are examples.
The most important solvent in living cells.
Insoluable in water; steroids are examples.
Describe the structure of DNA
Two long strands wrapped around each other to form a double helix. Looks like a twisted ladder and each strand is composed of many nucleotides. Each neucleotide is made of a sugar, phosphate and a base. There are four different bases; adenine, thymine, cytocine, guanine. Watson & Crick
The major proponent of spontaneous generation
"Father of Microbiology", Disproved spontaneous generation
Discovered phagocytic cells
Developed the vaccine for smallpox
Responible for one enzyme-one protein theory
Beadle and Tatum
First to associate a specific organism with a specific disease.
First to observe microorganisms
First to observe antiseptic/disinfectant; carbolic acid
Viruses that infect bacteria
Type of gene transfer that can transfer the most genetic material
Genetic transfer involving "naked DNA"
Type of enzyme always present in a cell.
Enzymes that are only present if the substrate is present (certain conditions exist)
This is a base substitution mutation
These organisms are classified according to locomotion
Submicroscopic intracellular paracites
This organism reproduces by spores
These divide by binary fission
These microbes have no cell wall, only a cell membrane
This causitive agent of CJD is an infectious piece of protein.
Infectious piece of RNA that cause some plant diseases
These organisms have a cell wall composed of chitin
These microbes are photosynthetic
These organisms possess only one chromosome
This virus is the most common cause of pneumonia in infants
Respiratory Syncytial Virus, RSV
This virus is a "slapped cheek" appearance in children
This virus is often associated with cervical cancer
One must have chickenpox first to develop this infection
This virus is spread by inhalation of dried urine from infected rodents
HantaVirus Pulmonary Syndrome
Herpes simplex 1
Vaccinations for this infection include Salk, Sabin and OPV
Koplik spots are characteristic lesions of this infection
This disease has been completely eradicated by vaccination in 1980
Negri bodies are characteristic inclusion bodies of this virus
A salivary gland infection that can lead to sterility in postpubertal males
121*C ar 15 psi for 15 minutes
Another term for cleaning
62*C for 30 minutes
This germicidal activity is about 260 nm
nonionizing radiation, UV
Freeze-drying to preserve bacteria
During this growth phase cells are metabolically active; preparing to divide
During this growth phase cell death is equal to cell multiplication
Cynobacteria are examples of this nutritional type
Nitrifying bacteria are examples of this nutritional type
During this growth phase cells divide exponentially
Most pathogens and normal microbiota are classified in this group
This organism is an acidophile; causes gastric ulcers
Gram neg bacillus; normal bacteria of the large intestine
These are gram pos cocci in clusters
The aerobic sporeformer genius
The genius of anaerobic sporeformers
Bakers yeast; produces alcohol by fermentation
All members of this genius are acid-fast
This is an example of an obligate Halophile
The yogurt bacteria
This genius has no call wall; a naturally occuring protoplast
Doorway to the Kreb's cycle
Carbon dioxide + water -->glucose + water+ oxygen
This phase of cellular respiration takes place in the prokaryotic cell membrane
Electron Trasport chain in cell wall
Glucose --->pyruvic acid
Glycolosis, 2 ATP
An organism that cannot grow without oxygen
These organisms require oxygen at a lower concentration than found in the atmosphere
These microorganisms grow better at high temperatures
These organisms prefer oxygen but can ferment if oxygen is present
These are catalase negative organisms
anaerobes and aerotolerant bacteria such streptococcus and entercoccus
These organisms grow in the refrigerator
These organisms grow best at room or body temperature
Who was Semmelweiss?
What is recombinant DNA?
DNA with two or more sources
What is the purpose of endospores?
What kind of chemical bonds hold organic material together?
Which bacteria are used to test the effectiveness of disinfectants?
Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonos
What is the pH of an acid?
acid < 7, base > 7
What is a chemically defined medium?
exact chemical composition is known
What is ethylene oxide? How is it used?
It is a gas used to kill all microbes and endospores but requires lengthy exposure times. It is highly penetrable and effective for use in steriliztion. Used to sterilize petree dishes.
What is capnophile?
Which organisms are permenant houseguests?
What is Zoonosis?
animal disease that can be spread to humans
What caused the pandemic of 1918 that killed more people that in WW1?
What bacteria is used in the Ames test?
What is the difference between competitive and noncompetitive enzyme inhibition?
Competive fills the active site of an enzyme substrate and competes with the normal substrate for the active site. Noncompetitive (allosteric inhibition) interacts with another site (allosteric site) of the enzyme site. This interaction causes the active site to change shape making it nonfunctional.
What is monotrichous? How many flagella?
A single flagellum at one pole, has one flagella
What are examples of Tetratogens we studied?
Herpes, Rubella, Cytomegaloviruses
How can you grow viruses?
animals, cell host, fertal egg
How is Hep A transmitted?
What is the most severe type of Hepatitus? Has the highest mortality rate?
Hepatitus D; cannot have Hep D without having Hep B.
Which type of bacteria has a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane?