SCC Final Exam

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100 terms · SCC Final Exam

The main energy source for most living cells?

ATP

These are the primary compounds that make up the cell membrane.

Proteins and phospholipids

Composed of glycerol and fatty acids

triglycerides

The genetic material of cells.

DNA

Antibodies and enzymes are examples.

Proteins

The most important solvent in living cells.

Water

Insoluable in water; steroids are examples.

Lipid

Describe the structure of DNA

Two long strands wrapped around each other to form a double helix. Looks like a twisted ladder and each strand is composed of many nucleotides. Each neucleotide is made of a sugar, phosphate and a base. There are four different bases; adenine, thymine, cytocine, guanine. Watson & Crick

The major proponent of spontaneous generation

Needham

"Father of Microbiology", Disproved spontaneous generation

Pastuer

Discovered penicillin

Fleming

Discovered phagocytic cells

Metchnikoff

Developed the vaccine for smallpox

Jenner

Responible for one enzyme-one protein theory

Beadle and Tatum

First to associate a specific organism with a specific disease.

Koch

First to observe microorganisms

Leeuwenhoek

First to observe antiseptic/disinfectant; carbolic acid

Lister

Viruses that infect bacteria

bacteriaphage

Type of gene transfer that can transfer the most genetic material

conjugation

DNA->mRNA

transcription

Genetic transfer involving "naked DNA"

transformation

Type of enzyme always present in a cell.

constitutive

Jumping genes

tranposons

Enzymes that are only present if the substrate is present (certain conditions exist)

inducible

This is a base substitution mutation

Point mutation

These organisms are classified according to locomotion

protozoa

Submicroscopic intracellular paracites

virus

This organism reproduces by spores

fungi

These divide by binary fission

bacteria, prokaryotes

These microbes have no cell wall, only a cell membrane

protozoa

This causitive agent of CJD is an infectious piece of protein.

prion

Infectious piece of RNA that cause some plant diseases

Viroid

These organisms have a cell wall composed of chitin

fungi

These microbes are photosynthetic

algea

These organisms possess only one chromosome

bacteria, prokaryote

This virus is the most common cause of pneumonia in infants

Respiratory Syncytial Virus, RSV

"Break-bone fever"

Dengue Fever

This virus is a "slapped cheek" appearance in children

Fifth Disease

This virus is often associated with cervical cancer

HPV

One must have chickenpox first to develop this infection

shingles

This virus is spread by inhalation of dried urine from infected rodents

HantaVirus Pulmonary Syndrome

Coldsores

Herpes simplex 1

Vaccinations for this infection include Salk, Sabin and OPV

poliomyelitis

Koplik spots are characteristic lesions of this infection

measles

This disease has been completely eradicated by vaccination in 1980

Smallpox

Negri bodies are characteristic inclusion bodies of this virus

Rabies

A salivary gland infection that can lead to sterility in postpubertal males

mumps

121*C ar 15 psi for 15 minutes

autoclave

Another term for cleaning

sanitization

100*C

boiling

62*C for 30 minutes

pasteurization

This germicidal activity is about 260 nm

nonionizing radiation, UV

Freeze-drying to preserve bacteria

Lyophilization

During this growth phase cells are metabolically active; preparing to divide

lag phase

During this growth phase cell death is equal to cell multiplication

stationary phase

Cynobacteria are examples of this nutritional type

photoautroph

Nitrifying bacteria are examples of this nutritional type

chemoautotroph

During this growth phase cells divide exponentially

log phase

Most pathogens and normal microbiota are classified in this group

chemoheterotroph

This organism is an acidophile; causes gastric ulcers

helicobacterpylori, H-pylori

Gram neg bacillus; normal bacteria of the large intestine

E. coli

These are gram pos cocci in clusters

styphylococcus

The aerobic sporeformer genius

Bacillus

The genius of anaerobic sporeformers

Clostridium

Bakers yeast; produces alcohol by fermentation

Saccharomyces

All members of this genius are acid-fast

mycobacteria

This is an example of an obligate Halophile

Halobacteria

The yogurt bacteria

Lactobacillus acidophilus

This genius has no call wall; a naturally occuring protoplast

mycoplasma

Doorway to the Kreb's cycle

Acetyl CoA

Carbon dioxide + water -->glucose + water+ oxygen

Oxygenic photosynthesis

This phase of cellular respiration takes place in the prokaryotic cell membrane

Electron Trasport chain in cell wall

Glucose --->pyruvic acid

Glycolosis, 2 ATP

An organism that cannot grow without oxygen

Obligate aerobe

These organisms require oxygen at a lower concentration than found in the atmosphere

microaerophiles

These microorganisms grow better at high temperatures

Thermophiles

These organisms prefer oxygen but can ferment if oxygen is present

Facultive anaerobe

These are catalase negative organisms

anaerobes and aerotolerant bacteria such streptococcus and entercoccus

These organisms grow in the refrigerator

psychophile

These organisms grow best at room or body temperature

mesophile

Who was Semmelweiss?

Handwashing

What is recombinant DNA?

DNA with two or more sources

What is the purpose of endospores?

survival

What kind of chemical bonds hold organic material together?

covalent bonds

Which bacteria are used to test the effectiveness of disinfectants?

Salmonella, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonos

What is the pH of an acid?

acid < 7, base > 7

What is a chemically defined medium?

exact chemical composition is known

What is ethylene oxide? How is it used?

It is a gas used to kill all microbes and endospores but requires lengthy exposure times. It is highly penetrable and effective for use in steriliztion. Used to sterilize petree dishes.

What is capnophile?

CO2 lover

Which organisms are permenant houseguests?

Herpes

What is Zoonosis?

animal disease that can be spread to humans

What caused the pandemic of 1918 that killed more people that in WW1?

Influenza

What bacteria is used in the Ames test?

Salmonella

What is the difference between competitive and noncompetitive enzyme inhibition?

Competive fills the active site of an enzyme substrate and competes with the normal substrate for the active site. Noncompetitive (allosteric inhibition) interacts with another site (allosteric site) of the enzyme site. This interaction causes the active site to change shape making it nonfunctional.

What is monotrichous? How many flagella?

A single flagellum at one pole, has one flagella

What are examples of Tetratogens we studied?

Herpes, Rubella, Cytomegaloviruses

How can you grow viruses?

animals, cell host, fertal egg

How is Hep A transmitted?

Fecal-oral

What is the most severe type of Hepatitus? Has the highest mortality rate?

Hepatitus D; cannot have Hep D without having Hep B.

Which type of bacteria has a lipopolysaccharide outer membrane?

Gram neg.

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