Biology: the Dynamic Science: Chapter 9: Photosynthesis

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author: russell san jacinto college

Photosynthesis

plants capturing energy from the sun and converting it into chemical energy that will be stored in the sugars it will make.

Autotroph

organisms that can make their own food. "Self-feeder" or producers

Heterotroph

"other feeders" or consumers

Chloroplasts

plant organelle where photosynthesis occurs)

Location of photosynthesis

leaves; specifically in chloroplasts

Chlorophyll

the pigment involved in photosynthesis.

Stomata

where gases are exchanged

Stroma

the fluid within the inner membrane of the chloroplasts

Grana

stacks of thylokoid

Thylakoid

flattened close sacs that stack

Overall equation & Tracking the Atoms Through Photosynthesis

6CO2 + 12H2O (light and chorophyl) => C6H12O6 + 6H20 + 6O2

pigments

absorb different wavelengths of visible light

Chlorophyll a

The most important of the two Chlorophyll; found in plants, green algae, and cynobacteria. The differentiating side group is CH3

Chlorophyll B

found only in plants and green algae; differentiating side group is CHO

Carotenoids

yellow-orange pigments that absorbs light in photosynthesis; embedded in the thylakoid membranes; yellow-orange vegetables have this (carrots)

Antenna complex

focuses energy from the light into the reaction center; very spec center

Reaction Center

where the photon is going to be focused and where the electrons will be excited; contains two chlorophyll A molecules; the ultimate pigment responsible

Primary Electron acceptor

accepts electron passed from the reaction center, after electrons has been excited and moved to the outer energy level; holds the electron (redox reaction (oxidation and reduction reaction))

Reduction

occurs when something gains an electron as in the case with the Primary Electron Acceptor.

PS II

aka p680; absorbs light less red, to the left; where initial excitation of electrons occur

PS I

aka P700; absorbs wavelengths of light in the red area; where 2nd excitation of electrons occur

Plastoquinone Pool.

A "pool" of molecules within the thylakoid membranes; links PSII to PSI; also aids the Cytochrome complex in the pumping of H+ from the stroma to the lumen

Cytochrome Complex

next step after H+ Pumping by Plastoquinones; and exists between PSII and PSI;

Plastocynanin

shuttles electrons from the Cytochrome complex to the PSI

Ferredoxin

an iron sulfur protein that acts as another mobile electron carrier of the pathway; then transfers to the NADP+ reductase

Cyclic Electron Flow

only uses PSI; Excited electrons cycle back to PSI; ATP is produced, but not NAPDH; Electron are sent back to the Ferrodoxin then to the Cytochrome complex.

Destination of Oxygen -

Out of the cell

Destination of ATP -

in the liquid stroma

Destination of NADPH

to light independent reactions

Calvin Cycle

where the sugars are actually made

Carbon Fixation

3 Co2 (atmosphere) react w 3 ribulose bisphosphates (needed for making sugars)(RuBP) forming 3 unstable 6C compounds.

rubisco

catalyzes the reaction of Carbon Fixation; the most abundant enzyme/protein on earth

Location of the Calvin Cycle

Stroma

phosphoglycerate (GPA)

the unstable compound broken down during Carbon fixation

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