Habsburg. Chosen to be king of Bohemia, but then rejected for Catholicizing it.
Peace of Westphalia (1648*)
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War. Marked the end of widespread religious wars.
The Polish legislature. Had the power to choose the king, making Poland a weak state.
Strengthened the French monarchy by undoing the Edict of Nantes and creating the intendant system.
John Locke (d. 1704)
Political philosopher. Believed in concept of "natural" rights. Governments protect these rights or lose their authority.
Ottoman soldiers, created from kidnapped Christian boys.
Oliver Cromwell (d. 1658)
Puritan leader during English Civil War. Dissolved Parliament and set up a military state.
War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713)
The Bourbons (French rulers) fought to rule Spain.
Ivan 'the Terrible' (d. 1584) [Ivan IV]
The first tsar of Russia. Became tsar by defeating the Russian nobles (boyars).
Officials sent to carry out the will of the French monarchy. Part of the rise of the middle class.
Jacques Bossuet (d. 1704)
Catholic thinker who invented absolutism.
Peace of Utrecht (1713)
Treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession. Bourbon family can rule Spain, but the same person can't rule France & Spain at the same time.
The large palace Louis XIV used to control the nobles.
The idea that a king answers only to God, and should be followed completely.
Peter the Great (d. 1725)
Obsessed with Westernizing Russia, and expanding it to include ports. Took control of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
Called the Last Great Religious War and the First Modern War. Involved religious conflicts and attempts to limit Habsburg power.
English Civil Wars (1642-1646; 1648*)
War fought to decide who had more power: King or Parliament? Parliament won, but Cromwell took control as "Lord Protector."
Artistic reaction to the High Renaissance values of balance, harmony, & moderation. El Greco.
Thomas Hobbes (d. 1679)
Political philosopher who believed that people would be in constant war without government and therefore must never rebel.
Glorious Revolution (1688*)
Bloodless revolution that put William & Mary in charge in England. The English monarchy would be Protestant and the English people had a Bill of Rights.
Artistic/musical/architectural movement that combined Renaissance art with Reformation religious feelings. Bernini.
Gustavus Adolphus (d. 1635)
King of Sweden who invented conscripted, standing army. Died fighting for Protestantism in the Thirty Years' War.
Charles I (d. 1649)
English king who fought Parliament, leading to the English Civil War. Executed after fleeing to Scotland.
Louis XIV (d. 1715)
Also called the Sun King, this individual is the quintessential absolute monarch.