← Chem Final Export Options Alphabetize Word-Def Delimiter Tab Comma Custom Def-Word Delimiter New Line Semicolon Custom Data Copy and paste the text below. It is read-only. Select All formic acid The IUPAC name for HCO2H is methanoic acid, it is commonly known as ___________. acetic acid Ethanoic acid (CH3CO2H) is usually called ___________, from the Latin for "vinegar". leaving group Acyl compounds tend to react by acyl substiution mechanisms because they all have a good or reasonably good _____________ attached to th carbonyl carbon. lactones; lactams Cyclic esters are called ________, while cyclic amides are called _______. Fischer An acid-catalyzed esterification (a reaction between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol) is called a _______. saponification Base-promoted hydrolysis of esters is sometimes called _____________. peptide The linkages that join amino acids together to form protienes are primarily made of _______ bonds. red LItmus paper turns ___ when an aqueous solution of a carboxylic acid is dropped on it. anhydride The only carboxylic acid derivative with two carbonyl groups i sthe _________. tautomerism The interconversion of the keto and enol forms of a carbonyl compound is called ___________. cross Aldol An Aldol reaction that startes with two different carbonyl compounds is called a ___________. gem-diol A compound with two OH groups attached to the same carbon is known as a ________. acetal A compound with two OR groups attached to the same carbon is known as a(n) ______. imine A compound containing a carbon double bonded with a nitrogen is known as a(n) _____. cyanohydrin A compound with an OH and CN group attached to the same carbon is knon as a(n) ___________. Wittig The reaction between a phosphorus ylide and an aldehyde or ketone is called the ______ reaction. aldehyde; ketone The Tollens test, used in conjunction with 2,4-DNP, can distinguish between ________ and ______. pi electrons Benzene is susceptible to electrophilic attack primarily because of its ___________. soporifics Physiologically speaking, barbiturates are very effective __________. Sodium azide ____________ is used in automotive airbags. nitrogen resonance Azo compounds are usually intensely colored because _______ _________. Buckminster fullerene Cagelike molecules with the geometry for a truncated isosahedron are called ____________________. phenyl When a benzene ring is used as a substituent, it is called a ______ group. internal Pyrrole is not particularly basic, because the lone pair on the nitrogen is _______. tyrosine; phenyl alanine; tryptophan Humans do not have the biochemical ability to synthesize the benzene ring. Therefore, two amino acids, ________, ________________, and _________, are essential to the human diet. substitution Benzene, while unusually unreactive, will react under certain conditions. However, when it does react, it does so by _____________ rather than by addition. conjugated; cumulated; isolated There are three types of polyenes (molecules containing two or more double bonds). They are: conjugated pi electrons UV-Vis spectroscopy can be used to indicate whether _______________________ are present. diene; dienophile The Diels-Alder reaction is a cycloaddtion between a conjugated ____ and a __________. nucleophilic Because the carbonyl carbon bears a partial positive charge, it is susceptible to ____________ attack. reduction A reaction which increases the hydrogen content or decreases the oxygen content of an organic molecule is called: oxidation A reaction which increases the oxygen content or decreases the hydrogen content of an organic molecule is called: lithium aluminum hydride LAH is the abbreviation for the powerful reducing agent: hydride A negatively charged hydrogen atom. Jones reagent A solution of Cromium trioxide in aqueous acetone. organometallics Compounds that contain carbon-metal bonds. Grignard reagents Organomagnesium halides are known as: competing nucleophiles Why can we not prepare a Grignard reagent from a molecule such as 4-bromo-1-butanol? epoxides A Grignard reagent will produce a primary alcohol when reacted with: epoxides; oxiranes Three-membered rings containing oxygen are called ________ or ________. host guest The relationship between a crown ether and the ion it transports is known as the __________ relationship.