Chapter 5: DNA, Gene Expression, Biotechnology

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid that carries information about the production of particular proteins in the sequence of its nucleotide bases

nucleotide

a sugar, a phosphate group (4 oxygen with 1 phosphorus), and a nitrogen-containing base

base

one of the nitrogen containing side-chain molecules attaches to a sugar molecule in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA

DNA base pairs I

two nucleotides on complementary strands of DNA that form a pair linked by H bonds; the information in a molecule of DNA or RNA is determined by its sequence of bases

complementarity

characteristic of double-stranded DNA that the base on one strand always has the same pairing partner on the other strand

nucleic acid

a macromolecule that stores information

DNA structure

"double helix" twisted ladder: alternating sugar-phosphate groups as backbone and base pairs are rungs

genome

the full set of DNA present in an individual

prokaryotic DNA

circular pieces of DNA

eukaryotic DNA

linear strands of DNA inside nucleus

chromosomes "color body"

a linear or circular strand of DNA on which are found specific sequences of base pairs

human genome

two copies of each of 23 unique chromosomes, one from the mother, one from the father

complementary base

adenine is the complementary base to thymine; guanine is the complementary base to cytosine

code

base sequence of a gene

cloning

production of genetically identical cells, organisms, or DNA molecules

clone "klon" twig

a genetically identical DNA fragment, cell or organism produced by a single cell or organism

clone library/gene library

a collection of cloned DNA fragments

alleles "allos" other

alternative versions of a gene

biotechnology

modification of organisms, cells, and their molecules for practical benefits

chromosomal abberation "aberrare" to wander LT

deletion of section of DNA, moving of a gene from one part of a chromosome to another part, duplication of a gene: change in overall organization of the genes

codons

three-base sequences in mRNA that link with the complementary tRNA molecules that are attached to amino acids

DNA probe

a short sequence of radioactive tagged single-stranded DNA that contains part of the sequence of the gene of interest, used to locate that gene in a gene library; the probe binds to the complementary base pair

genotype

the genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; collectively an organism's genetic composition

hybridization

process of joining two complementary strands of DNA from different sources; occurs when a DNA probe is used to match with a complementary sequence in a gene library

intron

non coding region of DNA

messenger RNA "mRNA"

ribonucleic acid that reads the sequence for a gene in DNA then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during transription

mutation

an alternation in the base-pair sequence of an individual's DNA: spontaneous or from exposure to a mutagen

nucleic acid

four types of biological macromolecules, nucleic acids are DNA and RNA

phenotype

manifested structure, function, and behaviors of the genotype of an organism

phylogenetic tree "phulon + genus" race, tribe, class + origin, family

a grouping of organism in a hierarchical system that reflects the evolutionary history and relatedness of the organisms

plasmid

a circular DNA molecule found outside the main chromosome in bacteria

point mutation

a mutation in which one base pair is replaced with another base pair, or a base pair is inserted or deleted

polymerase chain reaction PCR

laboratory technique in which a DNA fragment can multiply repeatedly by heating and putting separated strands into solution with nucleotides and then cooling

promoter site

part of DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that make up a gene begin

protein synthesis

construction of a protein from its constituent amino acids, by the processes of transcription and translation

recombinant DNA technology

depends on the combination of two or more sources of DNA into a product ex transgenic E.coli that has human DNA sequence that encodes for insulin production

restriction enzymes

enzymes that recognize and bind to different specific sequences of 4-8 bases in DNA and cut the DNA at that point

ribosomal subunit

two structural parts of the ribosome, which function together to translate mRNA to build a chain of amino acids that will make a protein

stem cell

undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body

transcription

process by which a gene's base sequence is copied to mRNA

translation

process by which mRNA directs production of protein

trait

any characteristic or an organism

transfer RNA (tRNA)

RNA molecules in the cytoplasm that link specific triplet base sequences on mRNA to specific amino acids (always start at AUG for the methionine amino acid)

transgenic organism

organism that contains DNA from another species

variable number of tandem repeats VNTR

regions of repeating sequences of bases in DNA that vary in the number of times the sequence repeats from individual to individual and in a given individual between homologues; ID the number of repeats in multiple regions tells people apart

AUG

start sequence, match with methionine

gel electrophoresis

use to make visual of VNTR in gel with electric charge

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