in mid-18th century Britain, they were a political faction that dominated Parliament. Generally they were opposed to royal influence in ogv & wanted to increase the control & influence of Parliament.
priniciple that emphasized the power of Parliament to govern colonial affairs as the preeminent authority.
notion that although colonists had not elected members to Parliament, they were nonetheless represented by it. Espoused by British leaders, this claim countered colonists' argument that they had no voice in Parliament & therefore were being taxed w/o proper representation.
throughout the conflict w/ GB, many colonists sided w/ the king & Parliament. Also called Tories, these people feared that American liberty might promote social anarchy.
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting of colonial delegates in NYC in October 1765 to protest the Stamp Act, a law passed by Parliament to raise revenue in America. Delegates drafted petitions denouncing the Stamp Act & other taxes imposed on Americans w/o colonial consent.
a violent confrontation b/t British troops & a Boston mob on March 5, 1770. 5 citizens were killed when the troops fired into the crowd. The incident inflamed antiBritish sentiment in MA.
committee of correspondence
vast communication network formed in MA & other colonies to communicate grievances & provide colonists w/ evidence of British oppression.
(1764) British deeply in debt partly to French & Indian War. English Parliament placed a tariff on sugar, coffee, wines, and molasses. colonists avoided the tax by smuggling and by bribing tax collectors.
an act passed by the British parliament in 1765 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
a law passed by Parliament in 1765 that required the colonies to house and supply British soldiers
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Townshend Revenue Acts
A series of taxes imposed by the Brit Parliament in 1767 on glass, lead, tea, and paper imported to the colonies.
Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
4 pieces of legislation passed by Parliament in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party were meant to punish the colonies.
declared all of the colonies in open rebellion and suspended trade b/t Britain and the American colonies
First Continental Congress
meeting of delegates from 12 colonies in Philly in 1774, Congress denied Parliament's authority to legislate for the colonies, condemned British actions toward the colonies, created the Continental Association, & endorsed a call to take up arms.
during their controversy w/ Britain over taxation, colonists devised a strategy of political resistance in which they boycotted a wide range of British imported goods to put economic pressure on Britain.
Second Continental Congress
this meeting took place in Philly in May 1775, in the midst of rapidly unfolding military events. It organized the Continental Army & commissioned GW to lead it, then began requisitioning men & supplies for the war effort.
Revolutionary tract written by Thomas Paine in January 1776. It called for independence & establishment of a republican government in America.
King George III
Leader of England during the American Revolution war. He was blamed for loss of 13 colonies.
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.
Battle of Saratoga
Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
The British recognized the independence of the United States. It granted boundaries, which stretched from the Mississippi on the west, to the Great Lakes on the north, and to Spanish Florida on the south. The Yankees retained a share of Newfoundland. It greatly upset the Canadians.