Chapter 47 Mobility and Immobility

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Nursing Fundamentals Potter and Perry 8th edition

Mobility

Self- defense, ability to perform ADLs, participate in recreational activities (also expression of emotions or satisfaction of basic needs with nonverbal gestures.

Body mechanics

coordinated efforts of musculoskeletal and nervous systems such as lifting tech. used in nursing, if incorrectly used it can cause injury.

Body alignment and posture

refers to positioning of the joints, tendon, ligament and muscles while standing, sitting, lying (individuals center of gravity is stable).

Friction

is a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement, greater the surface area of the object that is being moved, greater the friction.

Shear

force exerted against the skin while the skin remain stationary and bony structures move.

Pathological fracture

Fractures caused by weakened bone tissue

joints

connection between bone and bone

ligaments

connects bone with cartilage

tendons

connects bone with muscles

cartilage

nonvascular

unossified

not hardened as a bone (i.e. cartilage0

concentric tension

helps control speed and direction of the movement

isotonic contraction

of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes, like in swimming, rock climbing, cycling

isometric contraction

you simply hold the position, you don't put your muscle through any range of motion like holding a push up position

leverage

force that is applied to one end of the bone to lift an object

posture

position of the body in relation to the surrounding space, lower extremities, trunk, neck, and back are related to posture

muscle tone

normal state of the muscle tension, body achieve muscle tension by alternation contraction and relaxation w/o active movement

CVA

cerebrovascular accident or brain attack from ischemia

muscle atrophy

loss of muscle tone or joint stiffness(especially through lack of use)

immobility

remaining in place, not being able to move freely

bed rest

restricts pt. to bed for therapeutic reasons

disuse atrophy

tendency of cells and tissue to decrease in size and function in response to prolong inactivity like due to lack of use like in bed rest, trauma, casting, local nerve damage to motor division

BMR

the rate at which heat is produced by an individual in a resting state (Basal metabolic rate)

Neg. nitrogen balance

body excrete more nitrogen than it ingest due to immobolity

catabolism

breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy (break down)

anabolism

synthesis of more complex substances from simpler ones (build up)

hypostatic pneumonia

respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants (inflamed lungs due to stasis or pooling of secretions)

orthostatic hypotension

abnormally low blood pressure
(increase in HR and decrease in SBP or DBP when pt. changes position)

thrombus

a blood clot formed within a blood vessel and remaining attached to its place of origin (damage to blood vessel/wall, alteration in blood flow/ viscous and or alteration in blood clotting factors are three factors that contribute to it.

disuse osteoporosis

pt. at increase risk of fractures. immobilization results in bone resorption, the bone tissue is less dense disuse osteoporosis results.

joint contracture

abnormal and/or permanent fixation of the joint. flexor muscle are responsible for it.

foot drop

foot is permanently fixed in planter flexion position, ambulation becomes difficult due to the decrease in pt.s ability to dorsiflexion

urinary stasis

urine formed by the kidney needs to enter the bladder unaided by gravity but due to immobility the peristaltic contractions of the ureters are insufficient to overcome the gravity, the renal pelvis fills before urine enters the ureters.

renal calculi

calcium stones in renal pelvis

gait

particular manner or style of walking- helps you assess the pt balance, posture, safety and ability to walk w/o assistance. involves neuro, muscular and skeletal systems coordination

activity tolerance

type and amount of exercise a pt. can perform

BUN

blood urea nitrogen- lab values that help us determine metabolic function

anthropometric measurements

measurements to evaluate muscle atrophy- measured by using pt. ht. et. and skinfold thickness

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

SCD

sequential compression devices worn by pt.

embolus

an abnormal particle (e.g. an air bubble or part of a clot) circulating in the blood

ED

emergency dept.

WOCN

wound, ostomy and continence nurse society

AHRQ

agency of healthcare and research and quality

PT

physical therapy

CPT

chest physiotherapy: percussion and positioning the pt. to preventing pneumonia

IPC

intermittent pneumatic compression sticking made of fabric or plastic that are wrapped around the leg and secured with velcro

ankle pumps/ calf pumps

alternating planter and dorsiflexion

anti embolic exercise

alternately extending and flexing the knee (hourly)

trochanter roll

bath blanket folded in lengthwise and placed from great trochanter of the femur, prevents external rotation of the hips when pt. is in supine position

traprez bar

triangular device that hang down from overhead, helps pt. pull themselves up

IADLs

instrumental ADLs, activity such as shopping, preparing meds, banking and taking meds

sims position

semi prone

log roll

moving pt. (w/ spinal injury) as one unit

NAP/ UAP

nursing assistive personal / unlicensed assistive personal

hemiparesis

one sided weakness

hemiplegia

one sided paralysis

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