Nervous system

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neurons, brain, vascular. of brain , innervation

Which of the neuroglial cells of the CNS acts like a macrophage in cleaning up debris?

a. oligodendrocyte
b. astrocyte
c. ependymal cell
d. microglia

d microglia

Two major division of the nervous system

1. CNS = brain + spinal cord
2. PNS = cranial nerves + spinal nerves

Which are the two major structural divisions of the CNS?
a. nerve and ganglion
b. nerve and fiber tract
c. ganglion and nucleus
d. white matter and gray matter

d

Which of the following terms describes an accumulation of nerve cell bodies in the PNS?

a. nucleus
b. ganglion
c. gray matter
d. peripheral nerve

b ganglion

Identify the connective tissue layer surrounding a single axon.
Answer
a. epineurium
b. perineurium
c. endoneurium
d. basal lamina

c-endoneurium

Which of the following meninges of the CNS is intimately applied to the surface of the brain and spinal cord?
Answer
a. pia mater
b. arachnoid
c. dura mater
d. ependyma

a pia mater

How many spinal nerves must be cut (lesioned) to totally denervate a single dermatome?
Answer
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

c. 3at least 3

Which of the following supporting cells is NOT found associated with neurons and their processes in the CNS?
Answer
a. microglia
b. astrocytes
c. ependymal cells
d. Schwann cells

d. schwann cells (myelin PNS)

Which structure is purely motor?

a. true spinal nerve
b. dorsal ramus
c. dorsal root
d. ventral rootlets

d. ventral rootlets

Which menginge (layer) of the CNS will split to form a dural venous sinus?
Answer
a. dura mater
b. arachnoid
c. pia mater
d. ependyma

c. pia mater

What are the two major divisions of the true spinal nerve once it exits the intervertebral foramen?
Answer
a. dorsal root and ventral root
b. dorsal ramus and ventral ramus
c. dorsal horn and ventral horn
d. anterior sulcus and posterior fissure

b. dorsal ramus and ventral ramus**

Which of the following dural venous sinuses is found in the attached border of the falx cerebri?
Answer
a. superior sagittal sinus
b. transverse sinus
c. inferior sagittal sinus
d. occipital sinus

a. superior sagittal sinus superior border (1)
c. inferior sagittal sinus *inferior border (2)

Which of the following is NOT an artery found in the arterial circle at the base of the brain?
Answer
a. anterior cerebral
b. basilar
c. common carotid
d. posterior cerebral

basilar

Which of the following properly described the structures that come together to form a typical spinal nerve?

a. dorsal rootlet and ventral rootlet
b. dorsal horn and ventral horn
c. dorsal root and ventral root
d. dorsal ramus and ventral ramus

c. dorsal root and ventral root

Which of the following cranial nerves contains parasympathetic fibers?
Answer
a. II (thalamus) optic
b. VII (m.oblaganta) Facial
c. VI(m.oblaganta)abduc eye
d. IV(trochelear)moveeye

Cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10 have for taste vision audition eq. olfaction.
Have parasympathetic ganglia
b.VII

Do cranial nerves have sympathetic fibers?

NO!!

Which of the following dural folds separates the cerebral hemispheres?
Answer
a. falx cerebelli
b. tentorium cerebelli
c. falx cerebri
d. diaphragma sellae

c. falx cerebri
The scythe-shaped fold of dura mater in the longitudinal fissure between the two cerebral hemispheres.

Functions of cranial nerves

1-5

Trigeminal Distribution CN V

General Function CN 6-12

Which of the following cranial nerves is parasympathetic to the thorax and abdomen?

a. III (OCCULOMOTOR)
b. VII (FACIAL)
c. IX (GLOSSOPHAR)
d. X (VAGUS)

D .X-VAGUS

PARASYMPATHETIC TO THOR AND ABD REGIONS VIA LOCAL GANGLION

Which of the following nerves does NOT arise from the brachial plexus?

a. femoral
b. median
c. ulnar
d. musculocutaneous

a. femoral (lower limb)
(median-radial-ulnar-musculaocut,)

Which of the following fibers types are NOT contained within cranial nerves?
Answer
a. motor
b. sensory
c. sympathetic
d. parasympathetic

C- sympathetic

Which of the following cranial nerves is not PURELY motor?
Answer
a. trochlear
b. oculomotor
c. abducens
d. hypoglossal

b-occulomotor
Because it has parasympathetic ciliary and sphincter pupillae muscles via ciliary ganglion

Purely sensory

CN1, CN2, CN 8, CN 5 (V1-V2)
O,O,VCoch, Ofthdiv, maxildiv

Purely motor

CN 4, 6, 11, 12
TAAH
Trochlear, abducens, accesory, hypoglossal

Motor& sensory

CN V 3 mandibular division

motor and parasympathetic

Oculomotor CN 3

Motor, sensory & parasympathetic

CN 7, CN 9, CN 10
Facial
Glossopha
Vagus

Ventral root carries ....fibers

motor fibers

Dorsal root carries .... fibers

sensory

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

a. the dorsal root carries only sensory fibers
b. the dorsal ramus carried only motor fibers
c. the ventral root carries motor fibers
d. the true spinal nerve contains motor and sensory fibers

b. the dorsal ramus carried only motor fibers

Can carry both!

What are visceral afferent fibers?
a.somatic sensory fibers from body wall
b.somatic sensory fibers from viscera
c.visceral sensory fibers from viscera
d.visceral motor fibers from viscera

c.visceral sensory fibers from viscera

Each true spinal nerve contains ____ and _____ fibers.

-Somatic
efferents-afferents
-Visceral (ANS)
Efferent -Afferent

Visceral (ANS) efferent

efferents-
-preganglionic symp. visc fibers (T1-L2)
-postganglionic symp fibers to target organ
(purple) vaso-motor outflow

Visceral (ANS)-Afferents

Afferents- come back thru white rami and travel down symp trunk before synapse w/in spinal cord
(yellow-sensory)

Somatic - Efferent

Motor to skeletal

Somatic Afferent

Peripheral sensory receptors into CNS

All sensory fibers including somatic afferent and visceral afferent must take the _____ back to spinal cord

Dorsal root

Visceral afferent fiber accesses ventral ramus via _______ and it is like the ___________.

White ramus communicans; preganglionic sympathetic fiber

Where does the visceral afferent fiber synapse?

At dorsal horn of gray matter in spinal cord - So does somatic afferent fiber!

What is the concept of pain?

Somatic afferent fibers synapsin in dorsal horn of gray matter along with visceral afferent fibers - (skin) brain confuses which is which - so pain is the sense given!

Models of pain to body wall

1- proximal-distal referred pain
(radiating pain)
2- Embryologically - derived ref. pain (place of pain - far is felt)
3-somatic/visceral referred pain

Splanchnic nerves conduct which type of fiber to what region of the body?

a. pre/post ganglionic sympathetic fibers to body wall
b. pre/post ganglionic sympathetic fibers to body viscera
c. somatic motor fibers to body viscera
d. somatic sensory fibers to body viscera

b. pre/post ganglionic sympathetic fibers to body viscera

What is the function of the white rami communicans?

a. take preganglionic sympathetic fibers to the sympathetic trunk for synapse
b. take postganglionic sympathetic fibers to the sympathetic trunk for synapse
c. take preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the sympathetic trunk for synapse
d. take postganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the symapthetic trunk for synapse

c. take preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to the sympathetic trunk for synapse

White ramus comminicans is used because,,,,

preganglionic sympathetic fibers are myelinated and it helps them access the closest paravertabral ganglion
(purple)

Postganglionic sympathetics fibers reaccess forasal and ventral rami

via Gray ramus communications.(orange)

How many neurons are involved in relaying an impulse in an ascending tract?

3

Pain extending down the posterior region of the lower limb, from a herniated disc at L4/5 is due to which of the following:

a. embryological referred pain
b. dermatome pain
c. proximal-distal referred pain
d. somatic referred pain

c. proximal-distal referred pain

Which of the following fibers synapses in the intramural (terminal) autonomic ganglion?
a. preganglionic sympathetic
b. preganglionic parasympathetic
c. postganglionic sympathetic
d. postganglionic parasympathetic

b. preganglionic parasympathetic

Somatic (body wall) innervation runs along which of the following:
a. dorsal and ventral rami
b. gray and white rami communicans
c. splanchnic nerves
d. sympathetic trunk

a. dorsal and ventral rami
(green)

Which of the following facts concerning the parasympathetic division of the ANS is false?
a. neuron cell bodies of origin found in the brainstem
b. neuron cell bodies of origin found in spinal cord segments S2-S4
c. postganglionic parasympathetic fibers run in the ventral and dorsal rami to supply all body dermatomes
d. preganglionic parasympathetic fibers exit the spinal cord via the ventral root

c - postganglionic parasympatheric fiber run in the ventral and dorsal rami to supply all body dermatomes
FALSE

What is meant by a two neuron system in the
ANS?

meaning that from the CNS to the effector there are only 2 neurons

Which of the following ganglia facilitate the parasympathetic synapse in the wall of the effector organ?

a. paravertebral/sympathetic trunk
b. intramural/terminal
c. prevertebral/collateral
d. they all do

B

Which of the following facts concerning the sympathetic division of the ANS is FALSE?

a. sympathetic neuron cell bodies lie in the intermediolateral gray horn of T1 through L2
b. the closest site for synapse for the preganglionic sympathetic fiber is the sympathetic trunk (paravertebral ganglion chain)
c. collateral ganglia for sympathetic synapse lie along the base of the 3 main blood vessels of the abdomen
d. preganglionic sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord via the dorsal root

d. preganglionic sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord via the dorsal root

No they don't they exit the ventral root

Types of neurons

Unipolar-pseudounipolar (found in spinal cord) bypass soma
Bi polar - Axon, soma , dendrites
Multipolar- one soma 2 or more dendrites (most common-brain -spinal cord)
anaxonic neuron - no axon just dendrites (found in brain , retina adrenal medula)

Myelination

IN PNS - Schwann cells
In CNS-oligodendrocyte

Bundles of nerves,fascicles are covered by CT called

perineurium

Where is CSF made?

at choroid plexus within ventricular system
constantly secreted within the ventricles escapes to subarachnoid space and central canal - leaks into venous sinuses and arachnoid granulations

Where is CSF in the brain?

subarachnoid space

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