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Psychology

The greatest advantage of naturalist observation is that it

can reveal how people actually behave in everday life

Theories are vital tools for th efield of human development because they

provide organizing frameworks for our observations of people

Chromsky's Lad is...

an innate system that permits young children to understand and speak in a rule-oritnted fashion

Down syndrome is most commonly caused by

failure of the 21st pair of chromosomes to separate during meiosis

Vygotsky's theory focuses on

how culture is transmitted to the next generation

fertilization usually takes place in the

falopian tubes

_______ is an example of a history-graded infuluence in development

the introduction of the internet

the sex of a baby is determined by

whether an Zbearing or a Y bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum

Which country has the highest infant death rate?

the US

Baby Nadia's body looks wasted and she is withdrawn and apathetic. However, she is offered enough food and no biological cause for her condition can be found. She most likely has

nonorganic failure to thrive

What happens as a result of synaptic pruning?

seldom stimulated neurons lose their synapses

In Erikson's theory, ____________ is associated with a positive outcome of infancy.

the quality of the caregiver's behavior

the information-processing approach frequently relies on flowcharts to

describe the human cognitive system

Recall is more challenging than recognition because it

involves remembering a stimulus that is not present

The Apgar Scale rates characteristics of a newborn, including the baby's

heart rate, color and muscle tone

Information processing researchers use flowcharts to

map the precise steps children use in solving problems

_______________ is typical of children born with fetal alcohol syndrome

mental retardation

____________ is an example of a nonormative influence

being born deaf

____________ are examples of self conscious emotions

shame and embarassment

In Piaget's theory, a circular reaction is a means of building schemes in which infants

try to repeat chance motor behaviors again and again

Fraternal twins result when

two ova are fertilized by two sperm cells

A ________ refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period

teratogen

To examine whether children's popularity is stable or changes across the years, Dr. Clique followed a group of children from the time they were 5 years old to the time they were 18 years old. This is an example of a _____ design

longitudinal

Lateralization research demonstrates that

each hemisphere receives sensory information from the opposite side of the body

Jack and Jake are fraternal twins. Tom and Tim are identical twins. Based on prior research, one would expect the IQ correlation

to be higher for Tom and Tim than for Jack and Jake.

The period of the zygote lasts about ____, beginning with _________.

2 weeks; fertilization

During the second half of th first year, infants' most frequent expression of fear is

stranger anxiety

One yr old Jacob has developed a strong, affectionate tie to his mother. He feels great pleasure when he is with her and he is comforted by being near to her. This is an example of

attachment

Compared to breastfed babies, bottle-fed babies

have more allergic reactions and respiratory and intestinal illnesses

The average newborn sleeps __________ hours a day

16-18

In all societies studied, the most common attachment pattern is

secure

Marcus was physically abused by his parents during his early years. Now he is in elementary school and living with a foster family; his school counselor believes that the negative events of his first few years can be overcome by his now positive life circumstances. The conselor emphasizes the role of ______ in development

nurture

Early in his careet, Piaget derived his ideas about cognitive change during the first two years by

observing his own children and presenting them with everyday problems

Social referencing is important to children's development because it allows parents to

teach children how to react to novel events

__________ permit inferences about cause and effect relationships

experimental designs

A mother picks up and talks with her infant whenever the infant vocalizes. The mother's behavior is a

reinforcer

Research shows that ______ genes lie along the human chromosomes

20,000 - 25,000

According to Piaget, during _____, children interpret experinces in terms of existing schemes, whereas in ________, old schemes are adjusted and new ones created to make sense of the environment

assimilation;accomadation

Dynamic systems theory provides convincing evidence that the development of motor skills is...

profoundly influenced by the physical environment

According to Vygotsky, the force that drives a child's cognitive development is

joint activities with more competent others

The overriding factor in positive adjustment following divorce is

effective parenting

To get her favorit doll away from her brother, Mimi grabs the doll out of his hand and then pushes him down. This is an example of ___ aggression

instrumental

Marcella is anxious and unhappy. She is low in self esteem and self reliance and tends to react with hostility when frustrated. She most likely has parents who have an _________ style of child rearing

authoritarian

Jon i staking a test in which he is asked to come up with as many different ways as possible to make use of a paperclip. This is most likely a test of

divergent thinking

Longitudinal research reveals that, over time, the ability of ____ children does not predict their performance

learned helpless

A deficit underlying the diverse sysmptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is

an impairment in inhibition

"Girls resort to indirect relational tactics more often than do boys" is supported by research on...

aggression during the preschool years

Sally and Susie are using dolls to act out a make believe story in which Sally is the mother and Susie is the daughter. What type o fplay are these preschoolers engageing in?

cooperative play

_______________ has the highest divorce rate in the world.

US

A large discrepancy between the school age childs ideal self and real self can undermine

self esteem

By age 6, the brain has reached __________ percent of its adult weight

90

Three yr old Maya is building a block tower. Maya's faterh begins by pointing to where each block needs to go and then straightening out each block as Maya piles them up. As maya's competence with the task increases, her fater gradually withdraws support. This is an example of

scaffolding

Vinny and Marguerite are both building towers from the same large pile of blocks, but they do not talk to each other or direct each other's activities. They are engaged in _______ play.

parallel

If you asked 4 yr old Kate to tell you about herself, she would probably describe herself in terms of

observable characteristics

Piaget's three mountains task demonstrates preschoolers"

egocentrism

Riley is impulsive, disobedient, and rebellious. He is also demanding and dependent on adults. HIs parents are most likely to fit which of the following child rearing styles?

permissive

Research on sex differences in motor skills during middle childhood indicates that

girls outperform boys on skills that depend on agility and balance

Laren says to her playmates, "Don't let Renee play with your dolls. She'll steal them." This is an example of _____ aggression

relational

Natasha's parents have an authoritative child rearing style. Natasha is likely to

feel especially good about herself

The Stanford-Binet and the Weschler are most often used...

to identify students who are highly intelligent or have learning problems

In treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, stimulant medication

reduces symptoms in 70 percent of children, probably by increasing frontal lobe activity

In his triarchic theory of intelligence, Sternberg argues that

people who are creative think more skillfully than others when faced with novelty

According to vygotsky, private speech during the preschool years

helps young children guide their behavior during challenging tasks

The ______ aids in balance and control of body movement

cerebellum

As children move into adolescence, self concept becomes increasingly dependent on in formation from

close friends

According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is

industry versus inferiority

Studies of IQ correlations among kinship pairs indicate that

correlations for identical twins are higher than for fraternal twins

Three yr old Gwen explains that her bicycle is sad because it is alone in the garage. Gwen is demonstrating

animalistic thinking

At lunch time, 4 yr old Christopher was convinced that his sister Emma had more sandwich than he had simply because her sandwich was cut into four pieces. This demonstrates that Christopher lacks

conservation

Lack of effective learning strategies, reduced persistence, and a sense of loss of control are all associated with

learned helplessness

Effective coregulation is based on

a cooperative relationship between parent and child

According to Piaget, one limitation of concrete operational thought is that it is not yet

abstract

__________ are common everyday explanations for the causes of behavior

attributions

Gus is able to mentally represent his neighborhood and describe the space to others. His mental representation of his neighborhood is known as

a cognitive map

Two yr old Calvin says, "my cup falled," when his cup fell off of th table. The grammatical error in Calvin's sentence is known as an

overregularization

Development of th ecorpus callosum underlies

smooth communication between the two cerebral hemispheres

Gains in ______ permit the transition to rule oriented games in middle childhood

perspective taking

Most 3 and 4 yr olds believe that magic...

accounts for unusual beings an dunexplainable events

Contrary to Freud's beliefs, recent research provides evidence that

guilt is not the only motivator of moral action

Children with autism rarely

attribute mental states to themselves or others

Whe asked about his career plans, Simon says, "Haven't thought about it. Doesnt make too much difference what I do" He is characterized by

identity diffusion

Lauren enjoys working with ideas; Julia prefers interacting with people. According to Holland's six personality types, Lauren is considered _____ and Julia is considered _________.

investigative; social

Because Asa's past relationships have been characterized by jealousy and emotional distance, he feels a great deal of mistrust for his love partners. He feels anxiety about people "getting too close" and stresses the need for independence in his relationships. Based on this information, we can conclude that Asa an _________ attachment history

avoidant

Although Kohlberg proposes six stages of moral development, most never move beyond

Stage 4

The most consistent predictor of marital stability is

the age of the bride and groom at marriage

Calvin has a 20 percent greater body weight than he should have, based on his age, sex, and physical build. Calvin is considered to be

obese

A teenage boy's first ejaculation is known as

spermarche

In the chemistry of aging, a free radical is

a highly reactive chemical produced naturally by the body that forms in the presence of oxygen

Samera and Addison are a married couple in their early thirties who feel increasing pressure to buy a home and have children. This age related expectation for what they should accomplish during this period of their lives is

based on the social clock

The major fact or that makes girls in one region of the world reach menarche earlier than those in another region is most likely their

physical well being

Trishas mother is a lesbian. Trisha will most likely be

heterosexual and well adjusted

According to Erikson, someone who suffers a negative outcome to the psychological conflict of adolescence will experience

role confusion

Whe overweight and obesity rates are combined, _________ percent of Americans are considered to be at an unhealthy weight

65

One factor that makes treatment for anorexia very difficult is that

victims generally deny that any problem exists

Talli finds that she is attracted to men who are intelligent, ambitious, financially secure, and have a strong moral character. According to evolutionary theory, Talli8 is instinctively drawn to this type of man because these traits will ensure that he can

help raise their children successfully

Raj has realized that he is love with his girlfriend and wants to maintain their relationship by getting married. This is characteristic of the ____ component of love

commitment

What is linked most strongly to homosexuality?

heredity

Parents with what kind of parenting style will most likely have teenagers with superior school performance?

parents with aughoritative parenting styles

According to some theorists, cognitive development continues past the stages identified in Piaget's theory, leading to a stage called

postformal thought

According to Levinson's theory, each era of adult development begins with a _________, which is then followed by a stable period in which individuals build a life structure.

transition

What statement contradicts the theory that aging occurs as the body wears out from use?

moderate to vigorous exercise is related to longer lifespans

Nadine gained 10 pounds between the ages of 25 and 50. She should know that this is...

normal becaue of a drop in the basal metabolic rate

Katarina accepts her family's political an dreligious beliefs without question . She is characterized by

identity foreclosure

Fifty four yr old Abdul has become concerned about the values of the new generation and the state of our current society. He becomes a tutor and mentor for a program at a local community center that works with at risk youth. His actions are consistent with

Vaillant's theories regarding the "keepers of meaning" and guardians of culture

Viggo and Olivia communicate with each other in warm and tender ways and frequently express concern for each other's well being. According to Sternberg, they are displaying the ______ component of love

intimacy

________ have a higher rate of suicide, and tend to use techniques that lead to instant death, such as firearms

boys

Shobana want s to rely more on herself than on her parents when decisions come up that affect her. She feels more independent from her parents than at any other time of her life. Shobana is developing

autonomy

Kohlberg assessed moral maturity by describing a moral dilemma and analyzing a person's responses to it. His analysis focused primarily on which aspect of the response?

reasoning

The most common psychological problem of adolescence is

depression

twenty yr old Dominic explored the possibility of becoming a teacher by tutoring in an after school program. He then chose to major in education . Dominic is in the _________ of vocational development

realistic period

According to Erikson, the major personality achievement during adolescence is

identity

Although Suzanna desperately wants to learn how to dive, she refuses to practice at the pool because "everyone will be watching me and laugh because im the only one who cant do it" her thinking reflects

the imaginary audience

What do adolescents experiment with most during the teenage years?

alcohol

______________ adolescents are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflection

formal operational

As a child, David was negarive, restless, and willful. By age 8, he was already engaging in petty theft. Jamal was a happy child who did well in school but began displaying antisocial behavior around age 13 and gradually moved to more severe delinquent acts

David is at a higher risk for leading a life of full aggression and criminality

What is a strong predictor of divorce?

drinking or using drugs

A secular trend in the timing of puberty is a tendency for

girls to mature earlier than their mothers

Which person is likely to report the lowest level of satisfaction with his sex life?

Christopher, who is single and has had five different partners in the last year

__________ reach puberty an average of 2 yrs earlier than boys do

girls

______________ are more likely to engage in higher rates of sexual activity.

Married couples

Alexa drew up a written document in which she specified the treatments she does and does not want in cases when she may be near to death. Alexas document is a

living will

Elder abuse is more common if the elder's caregiver is

emotionally or financially dependent on the elder

Among Westerners, which factor seems to have a greater impact on reducing death anxiety

a spiritual sense of life's meaning

Janelle, who recently retired from a high-level managerial job, has no interest in anything outside of her former work and feels that she is worthless. According to Peck, Janelle needs to work on the task of

ego differentiation

May stops by her mother June's house twice a day to check on her. If June is having trouble getting dressed or making the bed, then May helps her and the two women chat while they work. However, if June has no trouble with tsks like making coffee or unloading the dishwasher, then May withdraws and attends to other jobs. June's satisfaction with her support relationship with May is probably due to the fact that

the support is not perceived as demeaning or unpleasant

Mr. Hiroshi is experiencing painful, stiff, and swollen joints and muscles. His doctor informs him that the cartilage on the ends of his bones is deteriorating due to decades of wear and tear

osteorthritis

Which comonent of Type A behavior, when isolated, consistently predicts heart disease and other health problems?

hostility

A definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is made by

EXAMINING THE BRAIN AFTER DEATH

If an elderly couple stops having sexual activity, which partner typically initiates this cessation?

the man

The function of Kbler-Ross's ____________________ phase is self protective, allowing the person to invest in rewarding activities and deal with the illness at his or her own pace

denial

Presbyopia is

the inability of the lens to adjust to objects at varying distances

The ______ refers to a trend in which women who support themselves or their families have become the majority of the adult poverty population

feminization of poverty

What is a good example of secondary aging?

heart disease from smoking cigarettes

Which factor contributes to resilience after widowhood?

continued social relationships that were important before the spouse's death

The earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease are generally

severe memory lapses

The negative outcome, or lack of a sense of generativity, of Erikson's midlife stage is ______________ which focuses on self indulgence

stagnation

In Erikson's theory of development, ego integrity versus despair involves

coming to terms with one's life

Most people who reach Kbler_Ross's acceptance stage

do so only in the last weeks or days of life

One hundred North American middle aged adults died last year. If the adults are statistically average, how many of those deaths were caused by cardiovascular disease?

25

Juanita cannot feel the buildup of pressure in her eye due to poor fluid drainage. This pressure, loeft untreated, can damage her optic nerve and is a leading cause of blindness. juanita has

glaucoma

Mr and Mrs Riediger are undergoing reproductive transitions. mrs Riediger is no longer able to have children, while Mr Riediger's fertility has diminished . They both are undergoing

climacteric

Celeste's partner, Nadine, has just died. Nadine's family never approved of their relationship and will not allow Celeste to take part in or attend the funeral services. Without the opportunity to mourn publicly and benefit from other's support, Celeste is at risk for

disenfranchised grief

At age 43, Darryl is a successful lawyer who gets a lot of satisfaction from guiding young lawyers starting out in the firm, coaching his daughter's basketball team, and being camp leader for his son's Boy Scout troop. According to Erikson, he has most clearly developed a sense of

generativity

Although Pearl's mother lived to be 95 , the last 10 yrs of her life were spent in declining health, confined first to a wheelchair and then to a hospital bed. perl wonders how many years of vigorous, healthy life she'll have in comparison to her mother. Pearl wants to find out the average ________ for someone her age

active lifespan

According to vaillant, the primary responsibility for the functioning of society falls on people who are

midlife adults

In his mid forties, Edgar felt enormous turmoil, dissatisfaction, and unhappiness with his life. He decided to quit his job, leave his family, and start a new life on a communal farm in Colorado. Research on midlife crisis indicates that Edgar is

very unusual for middle aged adults

Which type of intelligence increases steadily throughout adulthood?

crystallized intelligence

martha's mother is terminally ill and is expected to live for six more months. Because Martha can acknowledge that t his loss is inevitable and even prepare for it emotionally allows her to engage in

anticipatory grieving

____________ is the practice of ending the life of a person suffering from an incurable condition

euthanasia

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