CH 26 the body's control mechanisms and immuntiy

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acetylcholine

"the first neurotransmitter identified. it is made in the soma and migrates down the axon where they are stored until needed."

actin

"thin myofilaments, (sometimes combined with troponin and tropomyosin)"

allergy

"an abnormal immune reaction to an antigen"

antibody

"a protein made by B-Cells in response to an antigen"

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

"released from the posterior pituitary gland at the base of the brain and regulates the rate at which the body loses water through the kidney. (slow acting)"

antigen

"a large organic molecule usually a protein, that is able to stimulate the production of specific defense response and becomes neutralized or destroyed by the response"

autoimmune disease

"disorders that result from the immune system turning against the normal chemicals and cells of the body."

axons

"one of two kinds of nerve fibers. it carries information away from the cell body"

central nervous system

"consists of the brain and spinal cord, is surrounded by the skull and the vertebra of the spinal column."

cerebellum

"the large bulge at the base of the brain that is connected to the medulla oblongata. primary function is coordination of muscle activity."

cerebrum

"the part of the brain that interprets input from the senses, controls the movement of skeletal muscles, and carries out complex mental processes"

cochlea

"the snail-shaped tube (in the inner ear) where sound vibrations are converted into nerve impulses"

cones

"are a type of photoreceptor that process colors and finely detail images"

dendrites

"the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body"

depolarized

"If the membrane potential crosses the threshold value, an action potential is generated. The sodium channels open completely, sodium ions flood into the neural axon and the membrane is locally depolarized. This rapid diffusion causes the membrane to become oppositely polarized"

endocrine glands

"gland that releases its secretions directly into the bloodstream"

endocrine system

"the system of glands that produce endocrine secretions that help to control bodily metabolic activity"

epinephrine

"adrenaline; activates a sympathetic nervous system by making the heart beat faster, stopping digestion, enlarging pupils, sending sugar into the bloodstream, preparing a blood clot faster"

estrogen

"hormone produced by the ovaries; promotes female secondary sex characteristics"

exocrine glands

"glands whose secretions pass into a system of ducts that lead ultimately to the exterior of the body."

fovea centralis

"area inside the eye consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acu"

glands

"the organs of the body that release secretions. exocrine glands, like sweat glands, release their secretions into ducts. endocrine glands, such as the thyroid gland, release their hormones directly into the blood stream."

growth-stimulating hormone (GSH)

"produced by the anterior pituitary gland over a period of years and results in typical human growth."

homeostasis

"maintaining a constant internal environment"

hormone

"a substance that is made in one cell or tissue and that causes a change in another cell or tissue in a defferent part of the body"

hypothalamus

"a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and is involved in sleep and arousal."

immune system

"the cells, tissues, and organs that protect the body from disease by producing the immune response. the immune system is composed of the white blood cells, bone marrow, thymus gland, spleen"

immunity

"the body's capacity for identifying, destroying, and disposing of disease-causing agent. resistance to disease."

immunization

"a medical procedure to introduce a vaccine into the body to provide antibodies to resist disease; an inoculation, a vaccination, or shot"

immunodeficiency diseases

"a group of inherited or acquired disorders in which some part or parts of host defense are either absent or defective."

incus

"(anvil) vibrated by the malleous and causes the stapes to vibrate"

inflammation

"response to injury or destruction of tissue characterized by redness, swelling, heat and pain--a series of events that clear an area of harmful agents and damaged tissue."

malleus

"the outermost bone in the ossicular chain. one end is attached to the tympanic membrane; the other is connected to the incus."

medulla oblongata

"lowest part of the brain stem; connects with the spinal cord and is responsible for regulating heartbeat, respiration, swallowing, coughing, and blood pressure."

motor neurons

"neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands."

motor unit

"a single neuron and all of the muscle fibers to which it connects."

myosin

"protein that makes up the thick filaments in striations in skeletal muscle cells. it interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction."

negative-feedback inhibition

"regulating mechanism in which an increase in the stimulus causes a decrease of the response; results in homeostasis"

nerve cell

"the basic unit of the nervous system"

nerve impulse

"the message that travels along a neuron that involves a specific sequence of chemical events at the cell membrane"

nerves

"bundles of long axons and dendrites and is specialized to conduct nerve impulses."

nervous system

"consists of a network of cells with fibrous extensions, that carry information along specific pathways from one part of the body to another."

neuron

"aka nerve cell"

neurotransmitter

"a chemical that is released by a neuron for the purpose of carrying information across the gaps (synapses) between neurons"

norepinephrine

"a neurotransmitter that activates the sympathetic response to stress, increasing heart rate, rate of respiration, and blood pressure in support of rapid action."

olfactory epithelium

"the thin layer of tissue, within the nasal cavity, that is embedded with smell receptors."

oval window

"membrane that covers the opening between the middle ear and inner ear"

oxytocin

"released from the posterior pituitary gland to target the uterus & mammary glands. it initiates strong contractions and triggers milk release in lactating females"

perception

"the recognition that a stimulus has been received"

peripheral nervous system

"the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body and includes all sensory and motor neurons; divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system"

pons

"part of the brain involved in sleep/wake cycles and is involved in controlling sensory and motor functions of the face and head. is connected to the anterior end of the medulla oblongota and also connects cerebellum and medulla to the cerebral cortex"

acteylcholinesterase

"an enzyme that destroys acetylcholine and prevents restimulation which allows the second neuron in the chain to return to normal"

rods

"are a type of photoreceptor that process light and dark images"

somatic nervous system

"the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles. also called the skeletal nervous system"

autonomic nervous system

"the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart). its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms."

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