Ethics

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Ethics

The idea that different cultures have different beliefs about morality is a recent discovery that depended on the work of modern anthropologists

false

The purpose of the quotation from William Graham Sumner on p. 16 is to

support the idea that moral rules vary from culture to culture

The view that there is no such thing as universal truth in ethics, but that there are only various cultural codes is called

cultural relativism

The five propositions listed on p. 16 are all mutually consistent with each other—i.e., if one is true, then they all must be true or if one is false, then they all must be false, because they each are saying basically the same thing.

false

Cultural relativists believe that no claims about morality are true or false, even within cultural groups—it's all up to the individual to decide for him or herself.
Answer

false

The purpose of the cultural differences argument is to

support cultural relativism

The cultural differences argument is valid

false

The cultural differnces argument provides good reason to believe its conclusion

false

The cultural differences argument is sound

false

The purpose of Rachels' discussion of the flat earth argument on p. 16 is to

show why the cultural differences argument is invalid

According to Rachels, if cultural relativism is true, then we cannot say that a society that respects free speech is better than one that doesn't.

true

According to Rachels, someone who believes in cultural relativism cannot say that, because we now allow greater equality for women, our society is better today than it was in the past, because that would be evaluating the past culture by the standards of our present culture.

true

Which of the following are suggested by James Rachels as moral beliefs that are shared by all cultures

prohibitions against lying

Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason that people often think there is more disagreement among cultures than there really is about matters of morality

look up

Which of the following does Rachels offer as something we can learn from cultural relativism

that it is important to keep an open mind

Ethical subjectivism is the belief that

moral opinions are based on our feelings and nothing more

According to an ethical subjectivist, when a person says claims that capital punishment is morally wrong, they are

expressing their feelings but not stating a fact

According to James Rachels, any claim can count as a reason in support of any judgment.

false

When James Rachels says that moral truths are "truths of reason" he means that

a claim about morality is true if it is backed up by better reasons than the alternatives

Rachels believes that because there are no scientific proofs available in ethics then ethical claims cannot be adequately proven.

false

Rachels believes that because there are no scientific proofs available in ethics then ethical claims cannot be adequately proven.

true

In popular thinking, morality and religion are seen as very closely related, even inseparable.

true

Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason for the belief that ethics and religion are closely connected:

religious beliefs support the view that the universe is meaningful

The view that what is right is what is commanded by God and what is wrong is what is forbidden by God is called

The view that what is right is what is commanded by God and what is wrong is what is forbidden by God is called

Which of the following does Rachels present as a strength of the divine command theory of ethics

look up

Socrates presents a criticism of the divine command theory in which of the following dialogues of Plato

the Euthyphro

Socrates' criticism of the divine command theory is that it leads to a troubling dilemma.

true

According to Socrates, one interpretation of the divine command theory is that right conduct is right because God commands it.

true

If right and wrong are based only on what God commands, then morality would be:

arbitrary

According to Socrates, one interpretation of the divine command theory is that God commands us to do certain things because they are right.

true

If God commands an action because it is right, then there is no real basis for morality; morality is arbitrary.

false

To say that God's commands are morally arbitrary is to say:

God creates the reasons for his commands

Under the Divine Command Theory of ethics, there can be no genuine doubt as to what God has commanded.

false

If we interpret the Divine Command theory as saying that God commands certain things because they are right

we must acknowledge a standard independent of God's will

Thomas Aquinas was a believer in the Divine Command theory of ethics

false

In the history of Christianity the dominant theory of ethics has been the Divine Command Theory

false

Aristotle believed that the question "what is it for" could be asked of

anything in nature

The term "anthropocentric" means

human-centered

Aristotle's world-view was not very congenial to Christianity

false

Natural law theory asserts which of the following:

the world is in harmony when things serve their proper purposes

A strength of Natural Law Theory is that its conclusions are always relatively non-controversial

false

According to Natural Law Theory, the religious believer has special access to moral truth

false

Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason for believing that there might not be distinctively religious positions on major moral issues

look up

Rachels argues that religious beliefs don't have any importance for moral issues.

false

Rachels believes that religion and ethics really just boil down to the same subject.

false

John Arthur believes which of the following

look up

Arthur believes that for religion to provide moral guidance, we must first do which of the following

look up

Arthur believes that looking to revelation provides a short-cut to moral understanding.

false

F.C. Copleston was an advocate of which of the following

the view that morality is grounded in God

Bertrand Russell was a proponent of the divine command theory of ethics

false

Psychological egoism asserts which of the following

people in fact pursue their own interests alone

Psychological egoism is saying basically the same thing as ethical egoism

false

Which of the following is true of the relationship between psychological egoism and ethics, according to Rachels

if psychological egoism is true, then that ethics would be pointless

The story about Raoul Wallenberg is offered to do which of the following

challenge psychological egoism

Rachels believes that the "argument that we always do what we want to do" is a sound argument—i.e., its premise is true and the conclusion follows from that premise.

false

Abraham Lincoln believed that people always do what makes them feel good.

true

The "strategy of reinterpreting motives" is used to do which of the following

support psychological egoism by showing that our motives are really self-interested

Which of the following does Rachels offer as a reason that so many people are attracted to psychological egoism

look up

Ethical egoism asserts which of the following

people ought to pursue their own interests exclusivey

Ethical egoism says that a person should pursue their long-term interests, not their short-term interests.

true

Ethical egoism does not say that a person should avoid actions that help other people.

true

The argument that each of us knows our own interests better than other people know them is offered to do which of the following

support ethical egoism

Ethical egoists argue against altruistic behavior on the basis that

look up

Ayn Rand was a prominent ethical egoist.

true

According to Ayn Rand, the ethics of altruism denies the value of the individual by promoting self-sacrifice.

true

Rachels criticizes the argument in support of ethical egoism on p. 72 on the basis that

it asserts that we have only two options and ignores a middle ground between them

Thomas Hobbes argued that ethical egoism actually supports a moral principle just like the Golden Rule

true

Rachels believes that Kurt Baier's argument that ethical egoism is logically inconsistent is not as convincing as it first seems.

true

What Rachels calls the "principle of equal treatment" is put forth to do which of the following

undermine ethical egoism by showing that there's no basis for giving ourselves special treatment

According to Rachels, treating people in the same way means making sure that everyone ends up with the same outcome.

false

Immanuel Kant believed that some rules may be broken as long as the results will justify breaking the rule

false

Kant based his ethical views on theological considerations

false

An "ought" statement of the form, "If you want X, then you ought to do Y" is called

a hypothetical imperative

For Kant, moral obligations do not depend on us having particular desires

true

For Kant, categorical "oughts" have force because we have

reason

The rule or principle a person is following when they do an act is called

The maxim of the act

Kant believed which of the following about lying

It is wrong under all circumstances

Elizabeth Anscombe criticizes the Categorical Imperative on the basis that

It is useless without some guidance on how to form moral rules

What Rachels calls the "case of the inquiring murderer" is offered to do which of the following

Show that the categorical imperative is too absolute

Peter Geech believed that genuine conflicts between moral rules never actually occur.

true

Rachels believes that the basic insight of Kant's ethics is the following

Valid moral reasons are binding on all people at all times

O'Neill agrees with those who characterize Kant's ethics as being difficult to understand and excessively demanding.

false

Kant gives more than one different version of his Supreme Principle of Morality
Answer

true

For Kant, the maxim of an act is the principle or policy one follows when deciding on an action.

true

For Kant, what makes an action moral or immoral are the consequences of our action, not what we intend.

false

Which of the following would be treating someone as a means, according to Kant

look up

Which of the following would be treating someone merely as a means, in violation of the Categorical Imperative

look up

Kant believed that it is wrong to use someone as a means to our ends

false

Which of the following makes a false promise wrong, according to Kant

It treats the person who believes the false promise as a thing and not as a person

Which of the following are ways of treating people as mere means in violation of Kant's Categorical Imperative

look up

For Kant, the special moral status of people (i.e., their "dignity) is based on their

rationality

When I ask a friend to lend me some money, I am treating that person as a means in violation of the categorical imperative.
Answer

false

Bentham was a proponent of the retributivist justification of punishment

false

Deceiving someone in order to get them to do what I want would not violate the Categorical Imperative because they will have acted voluntarily and not under coercion.

false

Treating someone as an end in themselves requires that we make our purpose one of their purposes.

false

Kant objects to treating other people as a means.

false

In the example of the plumber on Rachels, page 138-139, hiring the plumber would

be morally okay because you are not treating the plumber as simply a means

Which of the following does Rachels suggest as examples of not treating people as ends

look up

Jeremy Bentham believed that some punishments were well-deserved and therefore good things.

false

Bentham was opposed to the retributivist justification of punishment because

he thought that retributivism advocated inflicting suffering without any gain in happiness

Which of the following is a utilitarian justification of punishment

look up

Which of the following is a retributivist justification for punishment

The criminal deserves punishment

Kant advocated retributivism because

even though punishing increased suffering in the world, it was alright because the suffering was borne by those who deserved it

According to Rachels, the utilitarian view of punishment is the dominant view in America today.

false

Kant objected to the utilitarian justification of punishment, because he thought it

is incompatible with human dignity

Kant thought that the utilitarian justification of punishment did which of the following

look up

Kant thought that punishment should be governed by which of the following principles

look up

Kant supported the death penalty for which of the following reasons

for murder, the death penalty is the only proportionate punishment

Kant thought that punishing a guilty person showed respect for that person because

it treated them as a rational being who could be responsible for their own behavior

Under the Kantian, retributivist theory of punishment, which of the following would not deserve to be punished

someone who is insane and therefore not able to control their actions

The name of Hobbes' most famous work in political and moral philosophy is

Leviathan

Hobbes lived in which century

17th

Hobbes believes that people are, when all is reckoned together, basically equal in strength and intellectual ability.

true

The reason Hobbes notes that with regard to their intellectual ability "every man is contented with his share" is to

Support his claim that people are basically equal in intellectual ability

An important consequence of people's relative equality for Hobbes is that they have an equality of hope that they will be able to attain their ends in competition with others who might desire the same things

true

Hobbes believed which about human beings

they are capable of only very limited altruism

Hobbes believed which of the following about the state of nature

there is not enough of what we need to go around

Which of the following does Hobbes identify as a cause of conflict (quarrel) among people

look up

diffidence means

not trusting

For Hobbes, the natural condition of human beings, when they live without a common power to keep them all in awe, is a condition of

war

Hobbes sees the state of nature as

very unpleasant

The point of Hobbes comparison of how people take precautions when going on a journey or locking their doors at night is to

Provide evidence in support of his claim that people are at war

Which of the following does Hobbes offer as empirical evidence in support of his view of the state of nature

look up

For Hobbes, there is no justice or injustice when there is no "common power" (i.e., a government)

true

The liberty that each man has to use his own power to the preserve his own life is

The right of nature

According to Hobbes, the First Law of Nature is to seek peace and follow it

true

The social contract conception of morality can be summed up as

morality consists in a set of rules that people agree to on the condition that others agree to them as well

Hobbes believes that without a "civil power" (i.e., a government) to compel people to keep the social contract, then there is no justice or propriety.

true

Which of the following does Rachels offer as an advantage of the social contract theory of ethics
Answer

it explains why it is rational for us to follow moral the moral rules

Which of the following is a supererogatory action

sacrificing yourself to save a drowning person

Judith Thomson believes that a fetus is not a person until after it is born.

false

Which of the following best describes Judith Thomson's position in her article

she assumes for the sake of argument that a fetus is a person from the moment of conception

The purpose of Judith Thomson's violinist analogy, as set out on p. 168-69 is to do which of the following

show that a right to life does not mean the right to have other people preserve one's life when the cost would be great

Judith Thomson's view is that people have a right to do anything whatever to save their lives

false

Which of the following best states Judith Thomson's position on the right to life

it consists in the right not to be killed unjustly

The purpose of Judith Thomson's "people seeds" story on p. 177 is to do which of the following

undermine the argument that a fetus has a right to its mother's body

Which of the following best states Judith Thomson's position

aofaiohsd

According to Judith Thomson,

foaj;eiorj

Judith Thomson's argument supports abortion in some cases but does not support securing the death of the unborn child.

true

As discussed in Mary Anne Warren's article, John Noonan's view is which of the following

dfja;dfja;

Mary Anne Warren believes that our moral rights are based on our being genetically human.

false

Mary Anne Warren believes which of the following
Answer

fkna;sdfkjas;

Which of the following characteristics of person does Mary Anne Warren believe a fetus possesses

a;fkljas;dfj

Which of the following is a necessary condition for personhood, according to Mary Anne Warren

alskdaf;skld

The purpose of the story Mary Anne Warren tells of the woman encountering aliens (on p. 198-99) is to do which of the following

fjas;dflkjas;

The reason Mary Anne Warren discusses infanticide is that

she needs to defend herself against the objection that her argument in support of abortion also supports infanticide

Which of the following is Don Marquis' view

abortion is usually morally wrong

According to Don Marquis, what makes the killing of another person wrong

adsjfalsdihf

Which of the following does Don Marquis offer as considerations that support his view of what makes killing wrong

dsfhnasldhf

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