Biophysics Final Exam
|Force||That which causes or tends to cause a change in a body's motion or shape.|
|Strength||The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert force against a resistance.|
|Velocity||The speed and direction of a body.|
|Power||The product of an applied force and the speed with which it is applied; the quantity of work done per unit time.|
|Kinesiology||The study of human movement from an anatomical and/or mechanical perspective. (Podcast)|
|Kinetics||An area of study that is concerned with the forces that act on a system. (Podcast)|
|Mobility||The ease with which an articulation or a series of articulations is allowed to move before being restricted by the surrounding structures.|
|Inertia|| The resistance of a body to a change in its state of motion.|
A body in motion will remain in motion; a body at rest will remain at rest. (Podcast)
|Acceleration||The change in velocity (speed and/or direction) per unit of time.|
|Biomechanics||The area of study wherein knowledge and methods of mechanics are applied to the structure and function of the living human system. (Podcast)|
|Center of Gravity (CG)||That point at which all the body's mass seems to be concentrated; the center of mass.|
|Synergy||The cooperative effort of two or more muscles contracting to accomplish a single movement.|
|Mass||The measure of a body's inertia; the amount of matter in a body.|
|Kinetic Friction||The friction that exists between two surfaces sliding past each other. (Podcast)|
|Density|| The mass per unit volume of an object or body (mass density); or weight per unit volume (weight density).|
|Volume||The three-dimensional space occupied by a body (length, width and height).|
|Weight||The force of earth's gravitational attraction on a body's mass.|
|Speed|| The magnitude of a body's displacement per unit of time without regard to direction.|
|Work|| The force applied to a body multiplied by the distance though which that force is applied.|
|Sublimation||Changing from solid to gas without becoming liquid first (e.g., dry ice).|
|Metabolic Rate||The sum total of the energy turnover of a cell. (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Acclimatization||The process of physiological and biochemical changes an animal undergoes in response to seasonal changes in climate. (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Metabolic Compensation||Adjustment of biochemical machinery to changes in temperature. (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Homeotherm||An organism that regulates its body temperature at a constant level. (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Poikilotherm||An organism whose temperature changes. (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Heterotherm||An organism that regulates its body temperature some of the time (e.g., hibernation). (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Ectotherm||An organism that depends largely on external sources of heat to maintain body temperature above the environmental temperature (e.g., lizards). (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Endotherm||An organism that regulates body temperature by producing heat through metabolic pathways (e.g., mammals, birds). (Podcast - Biology of Heat)|
|Transfer of Heat|| 1. Conduction|
(Podcast - Biology of Heat)
|Celsius to Fahrenheit Conversion|| F = 9/5(C) + 32|
|Fahrenheit to Celsius Conversion|| C= 5/9(F - 32)|
|Epistemology||The study of what is knowledge itself; branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge.|
|Teleology||The science of final causes.|
|Material Cause (Aristotle)||The stuff from which something is made (e.g., the marble of a marble statue).|
|Efficient Cause (Aristotle)||What brings the form into actual existence from the matter (e.g., the sculptor with hammer and chisel).|
|Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR)||Weak energy source coming from all parts of the universe; left over after the Big Bang. Discovered by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson at Bell Laboratories (1964). Won Nobel Prize.|
|Edwin Hubble||The American astronomer who showed that the entire Universe was expanding (late 1920s); "Red Shift." (Podcast)|
|Distance to Alpha Centauri||4.3 light years|
|Albert Einstein|| Formulated the general theory of relativity (1905). E=mc²|
Light is a constant (Photoelectric Effect); Brownian motion (molecules are always in motion).
|Louis Pasteur||Used a fixed virus to cure rabies (1855).|
|Pythagoras||Reasoned that just as numbers undergird music, so are they the very stuff and pattern of the universe. (Podcast)|
|Formal Cause (Aristotle)||The particular form (e.g., the statue of Alexander the Great) realized from the stuff of the material cause (e.g., the marble).|
|Final Cause (Aristotle)||The reason or purpose of the action (e.g., the end pursued by the sculptor). The science of final causes is "teleology."|
|Intellectual Revolution||17th & 18th centuries.|
|Big Bang||Began 13.7 billion years ago. Term coined by Fred Hoyle.|
|Base Level Mechanics||The mechanics of how we move in day-to-day activities - both in a relaxed state and in a stressed state.|
|Negative Feedback||This type of feedback keeps something within a given range.|
|Positive Feedback||This type of feedback accelerates a process.|
|Doppler Effect||Result of movement of sound waves - waves compress (higher pitch) as approaches, spread out (lower pitch) as moves away. (Podcast)|
|Eratosthenes||Calculated the circumference of the earth, diameter of the earth and moon, and distance to the moon. (Podcast)|
|1st & 2nd Laws of Thermodynamics|| 1. Describes the relationship between energy and work (the ability to make things happen, to cause change); energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it can only change forms.|
2. The level of simplicity or disorder (entropy) has increased; the entropy of an isolated macroscopic system never decreases, or (equivalently) that perpetual motion machines are impossible.
|Cephalocaudal||We grow in this manner/direction. (Podcast)|
|Proximo-distal||We develop in this manner/direction. (Podcast)|
|Emergent Properties||Features that are not present in the components from which they are constructed, but appear only when those components are assembled in specific ways. (Podcast)|
|Hydrogen||Early dominant element in the Universe. (Podcast)|
|Heraclitus||Argued that all nature is in constant flux. "You can never step in the same river twice." (Podcast)|
|Thales||Known as the "first philosopher" because he asserted both that an origin exists, and that that origin could be determined through observation. (Podcast)|
|Georges Lemâitre||Pointed out that the expansion of the Universe implied that in the distant past everything in the Universe must have been crushed into a single, tiny, dense, hot point - a "primeval atom" as he called it. (Podcast)|
|Early Elements of the Greeks|| In ascending order:|
1. Earth - cold & dry
2. Water - cold & moist
3. Air - hot & moist
4. Fire - hot & dry
|John Dalton||Published the concepts of atomic theory (1805).|
|Bronze Age||Highest expression in China. Shang Dynasty (1778-1122 BC). (Podcast)|
|Two Principles of the Greeks||Sulphur & Mercury|
|Iron Age||Required a hotter fire. (Podcast)|
|Paracelsus||Used mercury to cure syphillis (1527). Marks beginning of change from alchemy towards modern chemistry.|
|Joseph Priestly||Discovered production of oxygen by plants.|
|Fredrick Wöhler||Synthesized urea (1828).|
|Joseph Lister||Developed antiseptic surgery.|
|Michelson Morley||Experiment to prove the existence of the Ether (1887).|
|Socrates||Through his portrayal in Plato's dialogues, Socrates has become renowned for his contribution to the field of ethics, and it is this Platonic Socrates who also lends his name to the concepts of Socratic irony and the Socratic method, or elenchus. The latter remains a commonly used tool in a wide range of discussions, and is a type of pedagogy in which a series of questions are asked not only to draw individual answers, but also to encourage fundamental insight into the issue at hand. It is Plato's Socrates that also made important and lasting contributions to the fields of epistemology and logic, and the influence of his ideas and approach remains strong in providing a foundation for much western philosophy that followed. (Podcast)|
|1st Class Lever||Fulcrum is located between the resistance and motive force. Examples include plantar flexion of the ankle against resistance at the ball of the foot, triceps extending the elbow overhead, and the seesaw. (Podcast)|
|2nd Class Lever||Fulcrum is located at one end and the motive force at the other, with the resistance between them. Examples include push-ups, the wheelbarrow and nutcracker. (Podcast)|
|3rd Class Lever||Fulcrum is located at one end and the resistance at the other, with the motive force between them. Examples include ankle dorsiflection and swinging a baseball bat. (Podcast)|
|Andreas Vesalius||Wrote and illustrated the first medical text, "De Humani Corporis Fabrica." (Podcast)|
|Daniel Bernoulli||Discovered how to measure blood pressure (pressure differential). (Podcast)|
|Archimedes of Syracuse|| Considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time. Explained the principle of the lever. "Given the force, any given weight might be moved." Designed innovative machines, including siege engines and the screw pump.|
|Galileo Galilei||Father of experimental physics and "thought experiment." Invented the compound microscope. His worldview was predominantly quantitative.|
Law of Free Fall, Path of a projectile is a parabolic curve.
Wrote "Sidereus Nuncius" (Starry Messenger), which stated that the moon has mountains, valleys, and seas like the earth; the planet Venus shows phases; Jupiter is surrounded by four moons (Galilean satellites/Medicean stars); saw sunspots.
|Galileo's Law of Free Fall||States that bodies do not fall at rates proportionate to their weight; rather, they accelerate uniformly, their velocity increasing in proportion to the time of fall.|
|Parabolic Curve||Galileo demonstrated that the path of a projectile is a....|
|Gross to Fine learning and control||Our early development patterns give us this principle.|
|Muscles pull in this direction||Towards mid-line of the body.|
|Integrated System||All movement is directed through the center of gravity.|
|Terminal Velocity||The maximum speed that a falling body will reach as it moves through any medium.|
|Archimedes Principle of Buoyancy||States that the buoyant force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by the object; an object will float if it displaces at least its own weight in water. (Final Review)|
|Nitrogen Narcosis||A condition that occurs in divers breathing compressed air. When divers go below depths of approximately 100 ft, increase in the partial pressure of nitrogen produces an altered mental state similar to alcohol intoxication.|
It is caused by gases in the body acting in a manner described by Dalton's Law of partial pressures: the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of gases in the mixture. As the total gas pressure increases with increasing dive depth, the partial pressure of nitrogen increases and more nitrogen becomes dissolved in the blood. This high nitrogen concentration impairs the conduction of nerve impulses and mimics the effects of alcohol or narcotics.
Symptoms include: wooziness; giddiness; euphoria; disorientation; loss of balance; loss of manual dexterity; slowing of reaction time; fixation of ideas; and impairment of complex reasoning. These effects are exacerbated by cold, stress, and a rapid rate of compression.
|Diseases Associated With High Pressure|| Air Embolism|
|James Clark Maxwell||Demonstrated that electricity, magnetism and even light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the electromagnetic field. He demonstrated that electric and magnetic fields travel through space in the form of waves, and at the constant speed of light.|
|Electric Field (Direction of Movement)||Moves from positive to negative.|
|Induction||Result of the fact that similar charges repel & dissimilar charges attract, but objects do not need to be touching.|
|Watts||Watts (Power) = Voltage x Amperage|
|Magnetic Field||In a moving electric current, a ______ field exists that is perpendicular to it. The moving of one causes the other to exists, and vice versa - perpetual motion.|
|Red Electrode Charge||positive charge (Podcast)|
|Black Electrode Charge||Negative charge (Podcast)|
|Channel Sedation||Flow of current is opposite that of the channel. (Podcast)|
|Channel Tonification||Flow of current is the same as that of the channel. (Podcast)|
|Diode||In electronics, this is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts electric current in only one direction. The term usually refers to a semiconductor ______, the most common type today. (Podcast)|
|Magnetic Field (Direction of Movement)||Moves from North (positive) to South (negative). (Podcast)|
|How is it that the electromagnetic force goes on forever?||Once introduced into the universe, an electric field or a magnetic field becomes immortal - it goes on someplace forever. For if you discharge an electrically charged body and so try to kill the associated electric field, or if you destroy a magnet and so try to kill the associated magnetic field, the very death of either of the fields gives rise to a new field of the other kind: electric to magnetic or magnetic to electric. The dying field is a CHANGING FIELD, so it must give rise to a new field of the other kind.|
So on and on forever it goes. The electric field collapsing to make a magnetic field, the magnetic field collapsing to make an electric field - an electric field "reincarnated." This perpetual motion is the machinery that propagates radio waves, light waves and even x-ray waves through space.
Travel and travel. Though the broadcasting station is long silent, the candle long out, the radiation lab long closed - the wave goes on. Eternally faithful to its last command: NEVER EVER STOP. (p. 453 text)
|Four Basic Forces in the Universe|| 1. Gravity (graviton)|
2. Electromagnetic Force (photon)
3. Strong nuclear force (gluon) - holds the nucleus together
4. Weak nuclear force (weak boson) - responsible for radioactive decay
|Electric Current (Direction of Movement)||Moves from negative to positive.|
|Bio-Electric Stimulation (E-Stim)|| A specific form of electrotherapy that delivers small amounts of current to the body.|
(Ever done a Google search for "e-stim?" Very interesting....)
|Direct Current (DC)||The flow of electric charge is only in one direction. (Podcast)|
|Alternating Current (AC)||The flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction. (Podcast)|
|Semi-Conductor||A material that has an electrical conductivity due to flowing electrons (as opposed to ionic conductivity) which is intermediate in magnitude between that of a conductor and an insulator. Silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially. (Podcast)|
|Conductor||A material which contains movable electric charges. Examples include substances such as silver, copper, gold, aluminum, tungsten, iron, lead, and carbon (graphite). (Podcast)|
|Insulator||A material that resists the flow of electric current. Examples include substances such as rubber, glass, plastics, wood, and carbon (diamond). (Podcast)|
|Displacement Field||This accounts for the effects of free charges within materials. (Podcast)|
|Frequency (Periodic Waves)||Number of crests or troughs that pass a given point each second. (Podcast)|
|Speed of Sound Waves through different mediums|| In air - 343 m/s|
In water - 1,500 m/s
In iron - 5,000 m/s
|Wavelength (Periodic Waves)||Distance from a part of one wave to the same part in the next wave, such as from one crest to the next. (Podcast)|
|Amplitude (Periodic Waves)||The displacement from the rest position of the wave. (Podcast)|
|Period (Periodic Waves)||The time required for a wave to repeat itself; that is, the time for one complete wavelength to move past a given location. (Podcast)|
|Resonance||When the frequency of an applied force, including the force of a sound wave, matches the natural frequency of an object, energy is transferred very efficiently. (Podcast)|
|Mechanical Waves||Must move through a medium. Includes longitudinal and transverse waves. (Podcast)|
|Electromagnetic Waves||Does not require any medium for its propagation and can even move through a vacuum. Consists of vibrating electric and magnetic fields that move through space at the speed of light. Examples include radio waves and light waves. (Podcast)|
|Aristotle||Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.|
His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, which was incorporated in the late nineteenth century into modern formal logic. In metaphysics, Aristotelianism had a profound influence on philosophical and theological thinking in the Islamic and Jewish traditions in the Middle Ages, and it continues to influence Christian theology, especially Eastern Orthodox theology, and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church.
His worldview was predominantly qualitative.
|Aristotelian Scholasticism||In the educated world, that intellectual inheritance was a fusion of Aristotelian (and other Greek) philosophy and of Christian theology; it was known as "scholasticism" or, more precisely, as Aristotelian scholasticism).|
|Francis Bacon's New Organon||The New Organon had four essential and profoundly influential themes:|
1. Knowledge is human power.
2. Natural philosophy (science) is separate from theology.
3. Scientific knowledge requires the method of induction, from particulars to generalizations, always tested by experiment and open to revision.
4. Science is a dynamic, cooperative, and cumulative enterprise.
|Francis Bacon's Great Instauration||Bacon cautioned Christians against worshipping false "idols of the Mind" rather than God's actual creations.|
1. Idols of the Tribe are sources of error inherent in human nature.
2. Idols of the Cave are the particular biases of individual men.
3. Idols of the Marketplace result from the ambiguity of words.
4. Idols of the Theater are our received philosophical tradition, worshipped under the notion of authority, especially that of Aristotle.
|Francis Bacon's New Atlantis||In Bacon's utopian vision, all human beings would govern their relationship to nature and society on behalf of their own interest in human well-being.|
|René Descartes||Four elements constitute the Cartesian legacy:|
1. Dualism: we inhabit a universe composed of two distinct substances - mind and matter.
2. All matter is governed by natural mechanisms that science must understand.
3. The mind-body problem: two substances should not interact, but in fact they do.
4. Cartesians reject all beliefs, holding that matter is affected by immaterial forces.
|Age of the Universe||13.7 billion years|