percentage of the population (or number of people of each gender) at each age level in a population.
the total number of live births in a year for every 1000 people in a population per year.
child mortality rate
the annual number of children under the age of five years who die per 1000 live births; also known as the under-5 mortality rate.
the total number of deaths per 1000 people in a population per year.
the theory that relates the process of industrialisation to declining death rates followed by declines in birth rates.
the study of the characteristics and changes in the size and structure of human populations.
the average number of children a woman will have during her reproductive years.
infant mortality rate
the annual number of deaths of infants under 1 year of age per 1000 live births.
the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.
the act or process of moving from one place to another with the intent of staying at the destination permanently or for a relatively long period of time.
the situation where the existing population is too large to be adequately supported by available resources.
the number of people per unit area.
the variation of population density over a specified area.
population doubling time
the number of years required for a population to double in size given a constant rate of natural increase.
a bar graph showing the distribution by gender and age group of a country's population.
the age and gender composition of a population usually depicted as a population pyramid.
rate of natural increase
the percentage by which a population grows in a year. This is the difference between the birth rate and the natural death rate and excludes migration.
the number of children a woman and her reproductive partner must have to replace themselves. The worldwide average is usually just above two children per couple because some children die before they reach their reproductive years.
the rate of growth of an urban population.
the process by which there is an increase in the proportion of a population living in places classified as urban; the movement from rural to urban areas.
zero population growth (ZPG)
the situation where the birth rate equals the death rate and the population size remains stable.