Chapter 21 The Lymphatic and Immune System

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Anatomy & Physiology, The Unity of Form and Functions, Chapter 21, Saladin 5th Edition

There are multiple afferent lymphatic vessels and only a single efferent vessel in order to

slow the flow of lymph for maximal immune activity.

These structures filter lymph fluid that is carried in the lymphatic vessels.

lymph nodes

Which of the following structures is enclosed within a fibrous capsule? Peyer's patch, lymph node, lymphatic nodule, or tonsil

lymph node

Which of the following cells does not have phagocytic capability? eosinophils, basophils, neutrophols, or histocytes

basophils

All of the following are signs of an inflammatory response except ____. heat, odor, swelling, or pain

odor

Pyrogens, secreted by neutrophils and macrophages, function to

temporarily raise the set point of body temperature.

Which of the following act as "identification tags" which label an individual's cells as self cells? MHC proteins, haptens, epitopes, or interleukins

MHC proteins

There are five classes of antibodies. Which one can cross the placenta to provide immunological protection for the newborn?

IgG

The human immunodeficiency virus can not be acquired by? sexual intercourse, blood, childbirth and breastfeeding, or donating blood

donating blood

HIV attaches to the CD-4 membrane protein of these cells.

helper T

True or False - Lymphatic capillaries are closed at one end.

True

True or False - Lymphatic capillaries are composed of thin epithelial cells that loosely overlap each other, creating flaps that can open and close.

True

True or False - Lymphatic capillaries fill when tissue fluid pressure is low.

False

True or False - Lymphatic capillaries are absent from cartilage, bone, and brain tissue.

True

Lymphatic capillaries are anchored to the tissues by protein filaments that regulate lymph flow from tissues. When pressure in the tissue is high the _____ open and _____ is taken up into the vessel.

valves; lymph

The three main functions of the lymphatic system include?

fluid recovery, immunity, lipid absorption

Lymphatic vessels are different from veins in that they have ______ and _______.

thinner walls; more valves

The thoracic duct is larger and longer than the which other duct?

right lymphatic duct

Lymph flows into a lymph node through the

afferent lymphatic vessel.

Which of the following inhibitors of microbial growth is a component of the perspiration on our skin? keratin, lactic acid, defensin, or mucus

lactic acid

Which of the following terms means to coat bacteria, making them easier to phagocytize by macrophages and neutrophils? opsonization, complement fixation, pyrexia, MAC coating

opsonization

When a white blood cell manages to ooze through the gap between two endothelial cells on its way to attack an invader, we say it has exhibited ________________.

diapedesis

This type of leukocyte produces enzymes that will create hydrogen peroxide to kill bacteria.

neutrophils

This type of macrophage lines the sinusoids of the liver.

hepatic macrophages

Receiving gamma globulin as a treatment for rabies would be considered an example of natural active immunity, artificial active immunity, a vaccination, artificial passive immunity, or natural passive immunity

natural active immunity

Molecules which elicit an immune response are called ________________.

antigens

Infected cells of the pancreas would display a foreign antigen fragment on a(n)

MHC I

These cells recognize non-self antigens and produce interleukins to stimulate the cells that actually make the antibodies.

helper T

Antibodies use all of the following mechanisms to attack pathogens directly except ________________.

cell lysis

If you were inoculated with hepatitis A vaccine, a population of this type of cell would begin to make the appropriate antibody.

B lymphocytes

When antibodies produced to react against bacteria also react against self-antigens, the resulting condition is an example of a(n):

autoimmune disease

Which of the four classes of hypersensitivity is a cellular immune response, and not a humoral immune response? Type I, Type II, Type III, Type IV

Type IV

Anaphylaxis

A form of immediate hypersensitivity in which an antigen triggers the release of inflammatory chemicals, causing edema, congestion, hives, and other, usually local, symptoms.

Chemotaxis

The movement of a cell along a chemical concentration gradient, especially the attraction of neutrophils to chemicals released by pathogens or inflamed tissues.

Complement

to complete or enhance the structure of function of something else, as in the coordinated action of two different hormones

Connective Tissue

a tissue usually composed of more extracellular than cellular volume and usually with a substantial amount of estracellular fiber; forms supportive frameworks and capsules for organs, binds, structures together, holds them in place, stores energy, or transports materials

Human Immunodeficiency Virus

a virus that infects human helper T cells and causes AIDS

Lymphocytes

a class of relatively small agranulocytes with numerous types and roles in nonspecific defense, humoral immunity, and cellular immunity

Transgenic Bacteria

fenetically engineered bacteria that contain genes from humans or other species and produce proteins or that species; used commercially to produce clotting factors, interferon, insulin, and other products

Inflammation

A complex of tissue reponses to trauma or infection serving to ward off a pathogen and initiate tissue repair; recognized by the cardinal signs of redness, heat, swelling, pain, and compromised function

Lysozyme (aka Muramidase)

a secretion found in tears, milk, saliva, mucus, and other body fluids that destroys bacteria by disrupting their cell walls; variously regarded as a hydroltic enzyme or as a polysaccharide surfactant.

Lymph

the fluid contained in lympatic vessels and lymph nodes, produced by the absorption of tissue fluid

Diathrosis

a freely movable synovial joint such as the knuckles, elbows, shoulders, or knees

Hildum (aka Hildus)

A point of the surface of an organ where blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, or nerves enter and leave, usually marked by a depression and slit; the midpoint of the concave surgace of any organ that is roughly bean-shaped, such as the lymph nodes, kidneys, and lungs.

Mokokine

any interleukin secreted by a monocyte or macrophage

Antigen

any large molecule capable of binding to an atibody and triggering an immune response

Autoimmune Disease

any disease in which antibodies fail to distinguish between foreign and self-antigens and attack the body's own tissues; for example, systemic lypus, erythematosis and rheumatic fever

Lymphokine

any interleukin secreted by a lymphocyte

Antibody

a protein of the gamma globulin class that reacts with an antigen; found in the blood plasma, in other body fluids, and on the surgaces of certain leukocytes and their derivatives

Antigen-Presenting Cell

a cell that phagocytizes an antigen and desplays fragments of it on its surface for recognition by other cells of the Immune System; Chiefly Macrophages and B Lymphocytes

Cytolysis

the rupture and destruction of a cell by agents as complement proteins and hypotonic solutions

Immunity

The ability to ward off a specific infection or disease, usually as a result of prior exposure and the body's production of antibodies or lymphocytes against a pathogen. Compare Resistance

Macrophage

any cell of the body, other than a leukocyte, that is specialized for phagocytosis; usually derived from blood monocytes and often functioning as antigen-presenting cells

Pathogen

any disease-causing organism of chemical

Pyrogen

a fever-producing agent

Lymph Node

a small organ found along the course of a lymphatic vessel that fulters the lymph and contains lymphocytes and macrophages, which respond to antigens in the lymph

Clone

a population of cells that are mitotically descended from the same parent cell and are identical to each other genetically or in other respects

Cytotoxic T Cell

a T lymphocyte that directly attacks and destorys infected body cells, cancerous cells, and the cells of transplanted tissues

Diapedesis

migration of formed elements of the blood through a capillary wall into the interstitial space

Lymphatic System

an organ system consisting of lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, the tonsils, spleen, and thymus; functions include tissue fluid recovery and immunity

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

a group of condtitions that indicate severe immunosuppression related to infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); Typically characterized by a very low T4 lmphocyte coynt and high susceptibility to certain forms of cancer and opportunistic infections

Helper T Cell

A type of lymphocyte that perfomrs a central coordinating role in humoral and cellular immunity; target of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Kupffer Cell

a stationary macrophage in the sinusoids of the liver

Reticular Cell

a delicate, branching macrophage found in the reticular connective tissue of the lymphatic organs

T Cell

a type of lymphocyte involved in nonspecific defense, humoral immunity, and cellular immunity; occurs in several forms including helper, cytotoxic, and suppressor T cells and natural killer cells

Immune System

a population of cells, including leukocytes and macrophages, that occur in most organs of the body and protect agains foreign organisms, some foreign chemicals, and cancerous or other aberrant host cells

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