Pyruvate must be converted to acetyl Coa which links the cycle to glycolysis
consumes molecules and O2 to yield ATP
Pyruvate acid is converted to ethanol with the first releasing CO2
series of ATP producing reactions that do not require oxygen
H+ moves back across the membrane passing through channels
Includes both aerobic and anaerobic respiration
The use of energy in an H+ gradient to drive cellular work
Complete breakdown of glucose. Takes place in the mitochondrial matrix.
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts.
electron transport chain
Nadh passes the electrons to the electron transport chain.
transfer energy from chlorophyll in the form of electrons when light energy is absorbed
NADP+ = NADPH; ADP = ATP
partial degradation of sugar that occurs without CO2
Breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, occurs in the cytoplasm
An enzyme that phosphorylates something else. Kinases are frequently used in regulatory pathways, phosphorylating other enzymes.
lactic acid fermentation
Pyruvate acid is reduced to NADH forming lactic acid with no release of CO2
Nad+ is a coenzyme that the electrons are transferred to. Oxidizing agent. Stored energy fr making ATP
A four-carbon molecule that binds with the two-carbon acetyl unit of acetyl-CoA to form citric acid in the first step of the Krebs cycle.
A substance loses electrons such as when metal rust
Accounts for most of the atp synthesis. Powered by redox reactions. Accounts for 90% of ATP generates by cellular respiration
Electron receptor is the oxidizing agent
proton motive force
H+ gradient which emphasizes the capacity to do work
The three-carbon end product of glycolysis.
Chemical reactions that transfer electrons between reactants are called redox reactions
Electron donor is the reducing agent
A substance Gains electrons. Negatized
substrate level phosphorylation
A smaller amount of ATP is formed in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle by substrate phosphorylation.
electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle