above the vocal folds
below the vocal folds
Ventricle of Morgagni
gap between false vocal folds and true vocal folds
Superficial, Intermediate, Deep layers of vocal fold
Intermediate & Deep layers
The intermediate layer of the lamina propria is made of an ___, flexible matrix
The deep layer of the lamina propria is made of a ___ matrix
The superficial layer of the lamina propria is made of ___ matrix and has an epithelial mucus membrane
In puberty, the male ___ cartilage becomes ___
In puberty, the female ___ cartilage remains ___ (wide)
Posterior glottal gap present in females
Posterior gap between adducted vocal folds, leads to breathiness
Vocal fold has two behaviors
1) Abduction & Adduction 2) Open/Close Cycle of VF vibration
During Abduction & Adduction, we are capable of quiet breathing, ___ (glottal frication), ___, and ___ (glottal stop)
noise, voicing, silence
The open/close cycle of VF vibration allows ___ of ___ ___ to make the adducted vocal folds vibrate
airflow, subglottal pressure
The open/close cycle of VF vibration tenses the muscles to modulate ___ and ___
Phonation/voicing consists of ___, ___, or ___ types of voicing; and ___/low or loud/___ pitch.
breathy, normal, creaky; high, soft
Open/close of the VF cycle is an ___ process
Contract the cricothyroid to make a ___ pitch
Contract the vocalis to make a ___ pitch
We use active muscular forces during ___
adduct vocal folds and determine tension
Which muscles control medial compression?
Lateral cricoarytenoids, arytenoids (transverse and oblique), muscularis
Controlled exhalation is occurring, subglottal pressure builds
Vocal folds undergo cycles of aerodynamic myoelastic vibration
Subglottal pressure begins to ___ the vocal folds from below during the ___ phase
Subglottal pressure forces vocal folds apart, causing a burst of ___ ___ to release
Compressed air released during attack phase is also called a ___ or a __ ___.
soundwave, glottal pulse
Soundwave is a ripple in the mucosa causing a ___ ____ ____
complex periodic sound
Vertical phase difference is the ___ of complex periodic sound
sucks folds back together after soundwave occurs
forces the vocal folds to return to a non-deformed position
Subglottal Pressure, Elastic recoil and the Bernoulli Effect are __-___ forces
muscles that control stretching/tensing of vocal folds, control pitch
Muscles that control longitudinal tension
cricothyroids, (stretch for high pitch), vocalis (shorten for low pitch)
Pitch of voice
our perception of the fundamental frequency of phonation
Thick, flaccid folds vibrate ___
Thin, more tense folds vibrate ___
Low pitch is close to our ___ pitch
Loudness modulation: amount of __-___ pressure being produced by the rate of controlled ___
As pitch rises, so must ______ pressure
Speakers can produce larger dynamic range of intensity at ____ of pitch
narrow device with light and camera; down the throat
endoscope with stroboscopic light--observe phonation in what appears to be slow motion
light sensor placed on neck near glottis, measures light source that shines through glottis during abduction and phonation
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