A political system where the monarch (king or queen) control the taxation, military and laws within a nation. Louis XIV and James I are great examples.
Otto von Bismarck
Leader of the German state of Prussia who united the German states into one large German nation. Used was against Denmark, Austria, and France to accomplish his goals.
Latin American military dictatorships often marked by corruption and human rights abuses.
He led the South American independence movements against the colonial Spanish authority.
The practice of refusing to obey unjust or immoral laws, resulting in non-violence demonstrations such as strikes, boycotts,
President of the Republic of China who fled to Taiwan in 1949 after being pushed out by the communists.
Political revolution, led by Fidel Castro, to overthrow the Batista government. Castro established a communist regime.
A political, social, and territorial system in Europe during the Middle Ages, which created obligations between the lord and the vassal.
Leader of the non-violent civil disobedience movement that led to the independence of India from Britain in 1947.
A social and political reform of Mikhail Gorbachev of the former Soviet Union during the 1980s. This policy permitted political dissent and loosened general government control.
A political system led by a dictator who encourages the nation over the individual.
Leader of the Soviet Union during the late 1980s who attempted to open Soviet society and initiate economic reform.
Legal code developed in ancient Babylon which influenced the development of Jewish and roman law. "eye for an eye".
Dictator of Nazi German responsible for German nationalism, fascism, and the genocide of the European Jewish population.
Former leader of the nation of Iraq, who gassed Iraqi Kurds, and invaded Kuwait in 1990.
A Kenyan nationalist who won independence from Britain in 1963.
Leader of the Bolshevik Revolution which established the communist Soviet Union in former Russia in 1917.
An English philosopher who had an influence on the development of constitutional representative government. He believed that people had a right to change their government.
Italian author of the book The Prince. He contributed to the "ends justify the means". His writings would inspire Hitler and Mussolini.
The first document written to limit the power of the English monarch. Signed by England's King John in 1215.
Mandate of Heaven
a theory developed in China, stating that the emperors power was bestowed upon him from heaven. If the emperor fell from power, it was heaven's will.
Leader of the African National Congress who campaigned against Apartheid. He would survive prison and eventually become the first Black President of South Africa.
This era in Japan ushered in westernization, modernization, and imperialism.