5 Written Questions
4 Multiple Choice Questions
- a cell that produces insulin in the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas
- beta cells are destroyed (likely by viral infections) and islet cell antibodies appear. disease seems to be caused by a gradual process of autoimmune destruction in genetically susceptible people. Macrophages T and B-lymphocytes and natural killer cells are often present.
- appropriate meal planning as in type 1. only oral meds may be needed for management if the pancreas can still synthesize insulin (still some functioning beta cells) can use insulin injections. exercise (reduces after meal glucose levels and diminishes insulin requirements.
- encompasses many etiologically unrelated diseases and includes many different causes of disturbed glucose tolerance..it is a syndrome that is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and other disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. also a deficiency of amylin (a hormone co-secreted with insulin from the beta cells) in both types, causing altered glucagon control and assimilation of nutrients. (amyloid deposits may also be related to amylin loss)
4 True/False Questions
Treatment for type 1 → Insulin injections (4/day). self monitoring of glucose. consume sufficient calories to maintain normal weight for age. caloric intake regulated with age, activity and severity of the diabetes. exercise can result in hypoglycemia, insulin dosage should be reduced before exercise. can be prevented using with immunizations using low doses of insulin and oral insulin agents.
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus, non-immune → genetic abnormalities or injury to the beta cells impairs or in ihibits insulin secretion. if the person is heterogeneous for HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4 the risk is 20 to 40 times greater.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus → more common. caused by genetic susceptibility, triggered by environmental factors.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus, characterized by → mostly found in people older than 30. the greatest risk factor is obesity. in the obese, insulin has a diminished ability to influence glucose uptake and metabolism.