mental health

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44 terms

anxiety disorders *

state of apprehension uneasiness, or fear of the unknown
TYPES:
generalized
phobias
panic
obsessive-compulsive
post-traumatic stress
DRUGS:
benzos (xanax, librium, klonopin, valium, ativan, serax)
sed-hyp (ambien, sonata, short-term)
serotonin/dope agonist (buspar, short-term)
beta blockers (inderal, calming)

phobia disorder

irrational fear of objectives, activities, situations
DRUGS:
benzos (xanax, librium, klonopin, valium, ativan, serax)
sed-hyp (ambien, sonata, short-term)
serotonin/dope agonist (buspar, short-term)
beta blockers (inderal, calming)

generalized anxiety disorder

difficulty controlling unrealistic excessive anxiety associated with common daily experiences
DRUGS:
benzos (xanax, librium, klonopin, valium, ativan, serax)
serotonin/dope agonist (buspar, short-term)

panic disorder

sudden onset of severe anxiety
DRUGS:
benzos (xanax, librium, klonopin, valium, ativan, serax)
antidepressants

obessesive compulsive

recurrent obsessive thoughts and uncontrollabel compulsive behaviors that are irrational
control is important
do not interrupt behaviors
DRUGS
SSRIs

post traumatic stress disorder

associated with exposure to extremely traumatic, menacing events
DRUGS:
SSRIs (zoloft)

mood disorders

prolonged emotional state that affects a person's life and personality
TYPES:
unipolar (major depression)
dysthymic
cyclothymic
seasonal affective
schizoaffective
bipolar
DRUGS:
tricyclic antidepressants
atypical antidepressants
MAOIs (tyramine --> hypertensive crisis)
SSRIs
mood stabilizers

unipolar disorder (major depression)

mood disorder
loss of interest in life, lasts at least 2 weeks
ECT is option
DRUGS:
tricyclic antidepressants
atypical antidepressants
MAOIs (tyramine --> hypertensive crisis)
SSRIs
mood stabilizers

dysthimic disorder

mood disorder
chronic depression fluctuates with normal mood
DRUGS:
tricyclic antidepressants
atypical antidepressants
MAOIs (tyramine --> hypertensive crisis)
SSRIs
mood stabilizers

bipolar disorder

mood disorder
manic-depressive (mania lasts at least 1 week)
DRUGS:
tricyclic antidepressants
atypical antidepressants
MAOIs (tyramine --> hypertensive crisis)
SSRIs
mood stabilizers

cyclothymic disorder

mood disorder
mood changes between moderate depression and hypomania
DRUGS:
tricyclic antidepressants
atypical antidepressants
MAOIs (tyramine --> hypertensive crisis)
SSRIs
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
mood stabilizers

seasonal effective disorder

mood disorder
depressed mood that occurs during fall and winter months
correlated with light and melatonin production
DRUGS:
Diet
Exercise
Phototherapy (30 min/day)

schizoaffective disorder

mood disorder
combo of schizo and mood disorders
DRUGS:
tricyclic antidepressants
atypical antidepressants (trazadone, wellbutrin)
MAOIs (parnate, nardil, narplan - AVOID TYRAMINE - HYPERTENSIVE CRISIS RISK)
SSRIs
mood stabilizers (lithium, tegretol, depakote)

schizophrenia

mood disorder
difficulty thinking clearly, knowing what's real, managing feelings, making decisions, relating to others, includes delusions, hallucinations, illusions, psychosis
TYPES:
paranoid
catatonic
residual
disorganized
undifferentiated
DRUGS:
typical antipsychotics (traditional)
atypical antipsychotics
anti-parkinsonism (anticholinergics)

personality disorders *

functionaling impairing, distressing, inflexible, enduring, pervasive, and maladaptive personality patterns
TYPES:
A: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypical
B: antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic
C: avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
DRUGS:
antipsychotics (short-term control of schizo/borderline)
SSRIs (for mood swings, impulsiveness, agressiveness)

dissociative disorders *

sudden, unintentional disruption in client's consciousness, identity, or memory resulting from (hypothesized) trauma
TYPES:
dissociative amnesia (loss of memory)
dissociative fugue (loss of memory with wandering, shortterm)
dissociative identity (multiple personalities with one "host")
depersonalization (feeling of detachment from self)
DRUGS (primary):
Primary: "truth serums" (pentothal, sodium amytal)
DRUGS (secondary):
antipsychotics
antianxiety
antidepressants

somataform disorders *

psychophysiolgocal defense against anxiety, impaired ability to express emotion directly
TYPES:
somatization (multiple psychosomatic illnesses)
pain (psychosomatic pain)
conversion (loss of motor, sensory, or visceral function with indifference)
hypochondria (exaggeration of physical symptom)
body dysmorphic (preoccupation with phsyical defect)
DRUGS:
no specific drugs

cognitive impairment disorders *

TYPES:
delirium
dementia
DRUGS (primary):
cholinesterase inhibitors (cognex, aricept - for dementia)
NMDA receptor antagonists (nemanda - for alzheimers)
DRUGS (secondary)
antianxiety (ativan, desyrel, buspar)
SSRIs (prozac, paxil, zoloft, serzone)
atypical antipsychotics (zyprexa, seroquel, risperdal)

delirium disorder

cognitive impairment disorder
acute (hours to days), usually reversible; characterized by decreased awareness, cloudy mind, inability to focus and maintain attention

dementia disorder

cognitive impairment disorder
chronic, irreversible; characterized by impairment in memory, abstract thinking and judgment, and personality changes
DRUGS (primary):
cholinesterase inhibitors (cognex, aricept)
NMDA receptor antagonists (nemanda - for alzheimers)
DRUGS (secondary)
antianxiety (ativan, desyrel, buspar)
SSRIs (prozac, paxil, zoloft, serzone)
atypical antipsychotics (zyprexa, seroquel, risperdal)

eating disorders *

gross disturbance in eating pattern
TYPES:
anorexia nervosa
bulimia nervosa

anorexia nervosa

eating disorder
life threatening due to F/E imbalance, starvation

bulimia nervosa

eating disorder
binging and purging

crisis

experience of being confronted by stressor with which individual is unable to cope with or resolve (lasts 4-6 wks)
DRUGS (primary):
none
DRUGS (secondary):
antianxiety (xanax, klonopin, valium, ativan - for anxiety, panic, sleep distubances)
atpyical antipsychotics (zyprexa, risperdal, seroquel - for psycotic disturbances)
ambien (insomnia)
sonata (insomnia)

meds to treat and prevent suicide

goal is to treat underlying mood or psychiatric disorder
mood disorder is #1 predictor of suicide
DRUGS FOR DEPRESSION:
#1 SSRIs
#2 tetracyclics and atypicals
#3 trycyclics - OVERDOSE RISK
#4 MAOIs
DRUGS FOR BIPOLAR:
mood stabilizers
mood stabilizers
atypical antipsychotic (zprexa - METABOLIC SYNDROME RISK)

antipsychotics, typical - general

dopamine agonist
tolerance uncommon
effects take 2-4 weeks
highly toxic
USED FOR:
psychosis
antiemetics (nausea, vomiting)
antihistamines (allergies)
hiccups (chlorpromazine only)
AKA:
traditional antipsychotics, neuroleptics, penothiazines

antipsychotics, typical - extrapyramidal side effects

PNS:
ANTICHOLINERGIC
blurred vision, urinary retention, dry mouth, constipation, tachy, photophobia, mydriasis (excessive dilation), photophobia
HORMONAL
gynecomastia, galactorrhea, amenorrrhea, weight gain
OTHER:
sedation
nasal congestion
ortho hypo
agranulocytocis

CNS:
NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME (fatal!)
catatonia, rigidity, stupor, unstable bp, hyperthermia, diaphoresis, dyspnea, incontinence
PARKINSONIAN
shuffle, flat affect
TARDIVE DYSKINESIA
inability to perform voluntary movements
OTHER
dystonias (ucontrolled muscle movements)
seizures

antipsychotics, typical - meds

work with POSITIVE symptoms (voices, visions)
GENERIC ENDS IN -ZINE
thorazine
vesprin
serentil
mellaril
tindal
prolixin
trilafon
selazine
OTHER
haldol
moban
loxitane

neuroleptic malignant syndrome - S/S

FATAL!
catatonia
rigidity
stupor
unstable bp
hyperthermia
diaphoresis
dyspnea

neuroleptic malignant syndrome - treatment meds

FATAL!
parlodel
dantrium

antipsychotics, atypical - meds

work with NEGATIVE symptoms (withdrawal, silence)
GENERIC ENDS IN -PINE
clozaril (agranulcytosis --> check WBC!)
zyprexa (metabolic syndrome risk)
seroquel
GENERIC ENDS IN -DONE
risperdal
geodon
OTHER
abilify

psych med study tip

many meds cause photophobia
if "sun protection" is answer, consider it.

time for psych meds to work

observable 7-10 days
full effects 3-6 months

antidepressants, tricyclic - meds

ONE AT TIME, OVERDOSE RISK
elavil
anafranil
norpramin
sinequan
tofranil
pamelor
surmontil
ASE
anticholinergic
ortho hypo
sedation
wt gain

antidepressants, tetracyclic- meds

asendin
ludiomil
remeron
ASE
anticholinergic
ortho hypo
sedation
wt gain

antidepressants, SSRIs - meds

celexa
lexapro
prozac (displaces coumadin --> check CBC, bleeding)
luvox
paxil
zoloft
ASE
overstim of CNS (drowsy, dizzy, HA, sweaty, anxious, nervous, insomnia)
sexual dysfunction
taper when D/C'd

antidepressants, MAOIs - meds

nardil
parnate
ASE
anticholinergic
ortho hypo
sedation
avoid tyramine --> hypertensive crisis
FOODS TO AVOID
draft beer, yeast extracts
aged cheese
aged/cured meat and fish
saurkraut
bean pods, tofu, soy, miso, soups
DRUGS TO AVOID
antidepressants
antihistamines
narcotics
stimulants

antidepressants, atypical - meds

wellbutrin (ASE insomnia, agitation)
desyrel (ASE sedation, orthohypo, priapism, n/v)
serzone
effexor

antimania - lithium

TOXICITY
mild: lethargy, tremors, ataxia
moderate: blurred vision, slurrring, tinnitus, twitches + (n/v/d
severe: nystagmus, hallucinations, seizures + renal shutdown, coma, death

antimania - other meds

tegretol (no in pregnancy)
depakote (avoid yellow dye tartrazine)
ASE
seizures

sedative/hypnotics - meds

BARBITUATES generic ends in -BITAL
amytal
butisol
nembutal
luminal
seconal
BENZODIAZEPINES generic often ends in -ZEPAM or -LAM
ativan
versed
xanax
valium
librium
klonopin
halcion
restoril
serax
tanxene
prosom
dalmane
NON-BARB/NON-BENZO
ambien (knock knock sleep sleep)
buspar (no sedation or dependence, possible dystonia)
ASE
possible dependance

sedative/hypnotics - benzodiazepine antidote

flumazenil

alcohol, withdrawal - meds

BENZOS
librium
valium
ativan
BETA BLOCKER
atenolol
INHIBITOR
antabuse (post withdrawal)

opioid, withdrawal - meds

narcan (antidote)
revex (antidote)
methadone (long-term)

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