Chapter 15: From DNA to Protein: Biology: The Dynamic Science

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san jacinto author: russell

Reading frame

The way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons.

Transcription

(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA

Posttranscriptional modifications

modified structures created after transcription

Role of tRNA

brings different amino acids form cytoplasm to ribosome

Codons

A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.

anticodons

Three-base sequence in a transfer RNA molecule base that pairs with a complementary codon in mRNA

Wobble

A violation of the base-pairing rules in that the third nucleotide (5' end) of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon.

Ribosomes

protein synthesis

Polyribosomes

An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.

Mutations

Random errors in gene replication that lead to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic diversity

Mutagens

agents, such as chemicals or radiation, that damage or alter genetic material (DNA) in cells

Frameshift

A nucleotide is inserted or deleted, changing where the coding for entirely different amino acids.

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