Early Literacy for Children Age Birth through Three Study Guide

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Communication Milestone

A specific, identifiable, early literacy behavior.

Developmental Warning Sign

When a child is not reaching a certain communicate milestone and is exhibiting certain pre-determined behaviors.

Early Literacy

What children know about reading and writing before they can actually read and write.

Enviromental print

Words and lettering that occur in the child's everyday enviroment, such as names of toys, common household items, foods, favorite restaurants, ect.

Functional Print

Labels, lists, signs and charts that help children begin to associate words and letters with the things they do everyday.

Literacy Rich Enviroment

An enviroment in which the materials, furnishing, and room arrangment provide oppurtunities for children to communicate and interact with others.

Neural Pathways

Are the set of networking connections between neurons which are responsive for all brain activity.

Parallel Talk

Talk with a child that is describing and giving words to the things in the child's physical enviroment.

Responsive Communication

Give and take, back and forth cycle of using appropriate language, listening and then responding to communications; encouraging and rewarding communication and a child's efforts to use language.

Self Talk

Talk with a child that is descibing to the child what the caregiver and child are doing.

What is early literacy?

Is the communication skills reading and writing skills.

When does early literacy begin?

Literacy begin at birth.

What abilities can a child develop from exposure to early literacy experinces?

ability to communicate with others

Trends in a child's amount of talk, vocabulary growth, and types of interaction are well establish...

by age three

By taking the time to talk and read with children they will learn the vocabulary, language and other early literacy skills that will give them a better chance to succeed in school and throughout life.

True

Early literacy is formal instruction.

False

Early literacy is focused on motivating infants and toddlers to enjoy communication.

True

An important element of early literacy is repeated positive experinces with language and communication.

True

When you give them no feedback for their efforts, children will continue to want to interact with you and have begun to give them the types of experinces that will build their literacy skills.

False

Another way to encourage the development of early literacy skills is through pleasurable experinces with pictures and books. This does not mean teaching young children to read.

True

Early literacy experinces from birth through ____ years of age are the ____ needed for strong literacy skills in the future.

three, foundation

You have a golden opportunity to start children on the road to ____ early in their lives. It is not difficult to do. It involves responsive ____, interaction with others, and pleasurable experinces with materials such as books, ____, pictures and puzzles.

literacy, communication, music

Reading/Writing

5-8 years

Early Literacy experinces which build a foundation for literacy

0-3 years

Development of mature literacy

On-going

Early "reading" and "writing" activities

3-4 years

The sooner the positive experinces with language and communication start, the better prepared infants, toddlers and 3 year olds will be to read and write in the future.

True

Infants and toddlers need positive responses to their vocalizations only if we know exactly what they are saying.

False

Singing, playing, and pretending are all ways to provide opportunities for children to communicate with each other and their caregivers.

True

Children learn language through social experinces with ____ or other children who interact with them.

adults

In childcare facilities, opportunities for socialization are increased through what?

Peer interaction with other children.

Talking about daily happenings not only contributes to children's ______, but also helps them ______ how things fit together and how they work - all skills that will be important in learning how to ____.

vocabulary, understand, read

List three ways that caregivers can incorporate responsive communication into daily activities.

1. Talk about what you are going to do before you do it.
2. Talk afterward about it.
3. Engage them in conversation.

The best sounds in a baby's world are the kinds of sounds that make the baby want to listen less.

False

New brains need ____ and _____ - both planned and spontaneous - to develop and grow.

sights, sounds

Children learn to ____, ____, and ____ through social experinces with adults or other children who interact with them.

talk, read, write

You are a ____ for children when you interact with them.

model

You also have the opportunity to introduce new experinces to children - experinces that ____ their lives and _____ literacy development.

enrich, enhance

List three ways that caregivers can use a varity of materials to support early literacy experinces.

1. music
2. play materials
3. stacking blocks and playing with puzzles

Children need to feel _____ about reading and literacy experinces.

positive

Books should be ____ appropriate.

age

Children learn to read by listening to the stories that are read to them.

True

Reading is fundamental to all other areas of learning.

True

Researchers are using various methods to discover exactly what happens in the brain as we learn language. They know that the human brain begins preparing very early for language learning tasks - as early as ___.

birth

____ with babies promotes their creativity and problem solving, and as they get older, reading, writing, and decision making skills.

Talking

How do infants explore their enviroment?

Through touch, taste, sight, and sound.

Between 3 to 5 months of age, babies begin to link ___ and ___ together.

sight, sound

Birth- 2 months

Makes soft sounds and distress cries, coos & babbles.

4- 6 moths

Babbling has the rhythm of sentences.

7-8 months

Can vocalize some consonants, and may experiment with different combinations of sounds.

List seven activities and objects caregivers can use to support language and literacy development in children from birth to eigth months of age:

1. music
2. Books with audio and visual information.
3. soft dolls or animals
4. Playing with toys that make sound.
5. bright, high contrast pictures
6. touching, holding, grasping and mouthing
7. being held and responded to

Responding in detail to a baby's babbling encourages more babbling, and helps promote language development.

True

From eight to 18 months of age, children experince significant growth in all areas of development including ____, _____, ____ skills and emotional development.

intellect, language, motor

From eight to 18 months of age children have a decreased response to music.

False

From eight to 18 months of age children prefer books with unfamiliar contents.

False

From eight to 18 months of age children begin to imitate actions they have seen performed by adults.

True

From eight to 18 months of age children say their first meaningful words and begin to respond to directions.

True

List seven activities and objects caregivers can use to support language and literacy development in children from eight to 18 months of age.

1. word games and seek and find games
2. toys that encourage pretending
3. large size building blocks
4. books, songs, rhymes and pictures
6. scribbling and painting
7. music

Don't forget to incorporate music into every day's activities. Play ____ and sing to children. The songs should have many ____ words or phrases and ____ melodies.

music, repeated, short

List six common characterstics of children from 18- 24 months of age:

1. Have needs and preferences of their own.
2. Define emotions with words.
3. Show pride in achievements.
4. Have increased memory and attention spans.
5. Have discovered light switches, dials.
6. They climb on furiture.

From 18-24 months of age, children experince what is referred to as " _____ _____". They begin to express their wants and needs in words, know the words for objects and activities, and can talk in short sentences.

language explosion

____ is important because it helps children remember new words and pronounce words correctly.

Repatition

Since children are great imitators, be sure to use correct _____ so that the children will learn to use language correctly.

grammer

List six activities and objects caregivers can use to support language and literacy development for children 18 to 24 months of age.

1. dress up and pretend play
2. books with colorful pictures and short stories
3. reading books aloud
4. puzzles (4 to 8 pieces)
5. blocks, pegboards and string and finger paint
6. music and songs

You should have a book center or an area where the majority of books are displayed above the child's eye level. Do confine books to that one area.

False

When reading stories to children, ask them to respond to simple "yes" or "no" questions, not open ended questions.

False

Creative play activities, such as those involving puzzles, blocks, beads, and dress- up, can provide opportunties for children to talk about what they are doing and practice new words.

True

Which of the following is considered a developmental characterstic of a two year old?

1. speech is more clear
2. follows simple directions
3. begins to make friends
all of the above

Children 24 to 36 months use scribbles to convey meaning.

True

Three year olds are more skillful in picking up ___ objects. As their ____ control improves, they may begin to build block structures and mold clay and play-doh into _____ shapes.

small, motor, regonizable

At age three children understand stories with plots.

True

List three things in a book that caregivers should talk about as they are reading with children.

1. talk about characters and events
2. give each child a turn in choosing a book.
3. talk about the pictures.

Developmental Warning Signs:
Birth to 8 months

1. Child shows no interest in social contact
2. has minimal eye contact

Developmental Warning Signs:
8 to 9 months

1. stops babbling
2. shows little interest in caregivers or his enviroment

Developmental Warning Sign:
9 to 10 months

1. does not follow the direction of a pointed finger

Developmental Warning Sign:
11 to 12 months

1. does not give, show or point at objects or play games such as patty cake or peek a boo

Developmental Warning Sign:
12 to 18 months

1. can't make sentences
2. does not respond to familiar people or make eye contact with them
3. does not participate in social games

Developmental Warning Signs:
18 to 24 months

1. uses less than 25 words
2. does not point to show things to others
3. doesn't learn new words

Developmental Warning Sign:
24 to 36 months

1. has a limited vocabulary
2. uses only short, simple sentences
3. participates in less social play than other children

A child care enviroment that supports the child's early literacy development, is described using the terms:

literacy rich and communication friendly

A literacy rich enviorment provides infants and toddlers with opportunities to interact with ____ and to communicate using sounds, pictures, books, music, and other materials.

language

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