AP Chem Chapter 4

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General Chemistry ebbings-gammon chapter 4 vocabulary

electrolyte

a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current

nonelectrolyte

a substance that dissolves in water to give a nonconducting or very poorly conducting solution

strong electrolyte

a solution in which a large portion of the solute exists as ions

weak electrolyte

a solution that conducts electricity poorly because only a fraction of the solute exists as ions

molecular equation

the formulas of the compounds are written as though all species existed as molecules or whole units

complete ionic equation

a chemical equation in which strong electrolytes (such as soluble ionic compounds) are written as separate ions in the solution

spectator ion

an ion in an ionic equation that does not taken part in the reaction

net ionic equation

an ionic equation from which spectator ions have been cancelled

precipitate

an insoluble solid compound formed during a chemical reaction in solution

exchange reaction

(metathesis) a reaction between compounds that, when written as a molecular equation appears to involve the exchange of parts between two reactants

acid-base indicator

a dye used to distinguish between an acidic or basic solution by means of color change

Arrhenius acid

a substance that produces H+ ions

Arrhenius base

a substance that produces OH- ions

Bronsted and Lowry Acids

donates a proton to another species in a proton transfer reaction

Bronsted and Lowry Bases

accepts the proton from the acid

strong acid

ionizes completely in water- strong electrolyte

weak acid

only partly ionizes in water- weak electrolyte

strong base

a species that is completely ionized to OH- ions in dilute water solution

weak base

A base that does not dissociate completely into ions in solution.

neutralization reaction

acids and bases react to form water and a salt

salt

Any ionic compound that can be made from the neutralization of an acid with a base

polyprotic acid

an acid that yields two or more acidic hydrogens per molecule

oxidation number

(oxidation state) the actual charge of the atom if it exists as a mono-atomic ion or a hypothetical charge assigned to the atom in the substance by simple rules

red-ox reaction

reaction in which electrons are transferred between species or in which atoms change oxidation numbers

half reaction

An equation that describes either the loss or the gain of electrons. Two half reactions combine to form a chemical reaction

oxidation

The loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction

reduction

any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen

oxidizing agent

a substance that oxidizes another substance

reducing agent

The electron donor in a redox reaction.

combination reaction

a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form a single new substance

decomposition reaction

a reaction in which a single compound breaks down to form two or more simpler substances

displacement reaction

(single replacement) a reaction in which one element replaces a similar element in a compound

combustion reaction

a chemical reaction that occurs when a substance reacts with oxygen, releasing energy in the form of heat and light

molar concentration (molarity)

the moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution. (M)
M= moles of solute/liters of solution

Quantitative analysis

chemical analysis to determine the amounts of each element in the substance

Gravimetric analysis

A type of analysis that involves precipitation and weighing

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