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Chapter 2 Campbell Biology vocabulary and questions

Matter

anything that occupies space and has mass

Element

a substance that cannot be broken down

Compound

a substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratio

Trace Elements

essential in human body, but only in minute quantities

Atom

smallest unit of matter

Proton

(+) charged subatomic particle

Electron

(-) charged subatomic particle

Neutron

(n) charged subatomic particle

Nucleus

atom's core

Atomic Number

number assigned to an element by the number of protons it contains

Mass Number

sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an element

Atomic Mass

atom's weight

Isotopes

a form of an element with different # of protons

Radioactive Isotopes

an unstable form of an element with different # of protons

Electron Shells

number of electrons for an element to be stable

Chemical Bonds

atoms linked and held by attractions

Covalent Bond

atoms linked and sharing valence electrons

Molecule

linked atoms

Elecronegativity

attractions for shared electrons

Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

elements with equally shared electrons

Polar Covalent Bonds

slightly electromagnetic bonds

Polar Molecule

a molecule with slight unequal distribution of charges

Ionic Bond

ions with opposite charges are held together

Salt

ionic compound w/ metal and nonmetal

Hydrogen Bond

a bond w/ a H+ ion

Chemical Reaction

the breaking and making of chemical bonds leading to changes in the composition of matter

Reactants

starting materials in a chemical reaction

Product

ending materials in a chemical reaction

Cohesion

tendency for same molecules to stick together

Adhesion

clinging of one substance to another

Surface Tension

a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid

Heat

the amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms

Temperature

the intensity of heat

Evaporative Cooling

when a substance evaporates and leaves a surface cooler

Solution

a liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances

Solvent

the dissolving agent in a solution

Solute

the substance dissolved in a solution

Aqueous Solution

a solution in which water is the solvent

Acid

substance that adds H+ ions in solution

Base

substance that removes H+ions in solution

pH Scale

scale to describe how acidic or basic a solution is

Buffers

substance that minimize changes in pH

Acid Precipitation

precipitation w/ pH lower than 5.2

Ocean Acidification

CO2 dissolving in sea water and raising the acidity

_______ are the smallest part of an element that retains all properties of that element

atom

_______ cannot be broken down

elements

_______ is not contained in nucleus

electrons

an element with different # of protons

isotope

unstable variation of an element with different # of protons

radioactive isotope

Electron shells have _______, _______, and _______ electrons

2, 8, 18

_______ bonding involves the transfer of electrons

ionic

_______ bonding involves the sharing of electrons

covalent

elements have differing electronegativity are _______

polar

elements have the same electronegativity are _______

nonpolar

_______ leads to surface tension in water

hydrogen bonding

sweating is an example of _______

evaporative cooling

hydrogen ions = (_______)

H+

hydroxide ions = (_______)

OH-

substances that remove H+ ions are _______

bases

substances that add H+ are _______

acids

difference between pH of 6 and 7 is _______

10X

when a _______ takes place, compounds change their properties

chemical reaction

matter neither gained nor destroyed, called _______

Law of Conservation of Mass

_______ elements essential to life

25

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