History 1302- Test 2

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Big Stick Diplomacy

Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy in the early 1900s. Roosevelt would later use Big Stick Diplomacy to intervene in Latin American affairs

League of Nations

Proposed by President Wilson and approved as part of the treaty of Paris, founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join as the senate did not approve of the organization. It later proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s.

Triangle Shirtwaist factory

this factory kept doors locked to avoid theft trapping workers inside when a fire erupted. In NYC, 146 women died in factory in the year 1911, mostly young women alerted reformers to the terrible conditions of industrial workers

National Origins Act 1924

Law limiting estricted immigration from any one nation to 2% of the total number of persons of that national origin already living in the US in 1890, Law limiting the amount of immigration allowed into the USA; blatantly discriminated against immigrants from southern Europe, eastern Europe, and Asia

RFC

Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Hoovers response to the Depression. Passed in January 1932, this measure loaned billions money to banks and insurance companies and RRs. and provided funds for state and local programs providing relief

TVA

The Tennessee Valley Authority federation was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression. Built a hydro electric dam.

initiative

Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters.

referendum

Procedure whereby the state submits legislation to its voters for approval, allowing citizens to vote directly on issues

recall

gave citizens a chance to remove an elected official from office before the person's term ended, Procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.

direct primary

An election where people directly elect their party's candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.

Dollar diplomacy

1909, President Taft's foreign policy of promoting U. S. Interests overseas by encouraging American business to invest in foreign countries, particularly in the Caribbean and Latin America. The US would guarantee loans to many of these nations in C. and L. America Doing so made them dependent on the US.

Zimmerman Note

Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.

Selective Service Act

This 1917 law required for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. First peacetime draft in US history

Committee on Public Information

It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees.

Underwood Tariff

Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax. Lowered tariff rates for the first time since the Civil War

Federal Reserve Act

Sparked by the Panic of 1893 and 1907, the 1913 Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System, which issued paper money controlled by central government banks. Passed during Wilson's presidency. was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency.

Harlem Renaissance

a rebirth of African American culture in the 1920s in the Harlem section of NYC; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American. Emergence of Jazz. Langston Hughes, Zora Hurston

Sacco and Vanzetti

Two Italian born laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution in 1927 in MA for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime

Scopes Trial

1925 court case in which Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated the issue of teaching evolution in public schools. The court case resulted after John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school. This case is known for the amount of media attention it got. People all around the world tuned it to watch the case.

SSA

1935 - Social Securities Act - guaranteed retirement payments for enrolled workers beginning at age 65; set up federal-state system of unumployment insurance and care for dependent mothers and children, the handicapped, and public health; continues today. Relief, Recovery, Reform

Court Packing Plan

President FDR's failed 1937 attempt to increase the number of US Supreme Court Justices from 9 to 15 in order to save his 2nd New Deal programs from constitutional challenges

Moral Diplomacy

Policy adopted by President Woodrow Wilson that rejected the approach of "dollar diplomacy". Rather than focusing mainly on economic ties with other nations, Wilson's policy was designed to bring right principles to the world, preserve peace, and extend to other peoples the blessings of democracy.

War Industries Board

Headed by Bernard Baruch. Established prior to ww1 in 1917 to mobilize the American economy for war.Oversaw the production of all American factories. It determined priorities, allocated raw materials, and fixed prices; it told manufacturers what they could and could not produce.

Clayton Anti- Trust Act

law enacted in 1914 to protect the rights of labor unions. prohibited one company from taking over the stock of another if it created a monopoly and forbade anyone to serve as director of two more cooperations when the effect was to lesson competition

Teapot Domes

Secretory of Interior Albert B. Fall personally profited by selling the leases of oil filled lands in Teapot Dome, and Elk Hills to oilmen Sinclair & Doheny in 1921 ; became symbolic of the scandals of the Harding administration

Bonus Army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash before the 1945 due date because of the Depression. Hoover sends out military to deal w/ them. Seen as a brutal incident that severely hurt Hoover's popularity.

CCC

Part of New Deal. Civilian Conservation Corps (1933)- Relief- Young men between the ages of 18 and 25 volunteered to be placed in camps to work on regional environmental projects, mainly west of the Mississippi; they received $30 a month, of which $25 was sent home; disbanded during World War II.

WPA

Part of New Deal. Works Progress Administration (1935)- Relief- Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during World War II. Provided mass employment. In charge was Harry Hopkins.

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