Introduction to Antibiotics

Created by Nygrl89 

Upgrade to
remove ads

43 terms

AUC

the area under the curve (hint) which represents OVERALL drug exposure. Element of oral absorption

food

may enhance absorption and may decrease adverse drug events. Important element in antibiotic dosing (what is _____)

with or without

the following medications can be taken ? food: Sulfadrugs, Flouroquinilones, Penicillin VK, Amoxicillin, Augmentin, Cephalexin, Cephradine, Cefaclor, Cefixime, Cefprozil, Ketoconazole, Erythromycin, Biaxin, Acyclovir, Isoniazid

with

the following medications are taken ? food, cefuroxime axetil, cefpodoxime, cefditoren, Clarithromycin, Rifapentine, Itraconazole, Tinidazole, Valganciclovir, Ritonavir, Saquinavir

without

the following medications are take ? food, Dicloxacillin, ampicillin, tetracycline, ceftibuten, Erythromycin base/stearate, itraconazole, voriconazole, Rifampin, Doxycycline, Minocycline

intramuscular

the following agents are available as ? agents. Gentamicin, tobramycin, streptomycin, amikacin.

decreased

in the following populations, absorption is (increased/decreased) after IM administration. Little people and patients with long standing diabetes mellitus.

IV

in general, patients sick enough to be admitted to the hospital will receive antibiotics via the ? route

therapeutic concentrations

when choosing an antibiotic to treat an infection choose the antimicrobial agent which achieves the highest ? ? at the SITE OF INFECTION (very important in endocarditis, lung-pneumonia, UTI, CNS)

meningitis

to treat ? you would use cephalosporins and penicillins that penetrate the CNS in therapeutic concentrations.

meningitis

THIRD generation Cephalosporins such as ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftizoxime and FOURTH generations Cefepime are used to treat ......

third and fourth

which two generations of cephalosporins are used to treat meningitis?

penicillin

when normal, meningal levels of ? are very low, however inflammation increases penetration into the CNS. DO NOT DECREASE THE DOSE AS PATIENT IMPROVES. Penetration decreases as inflammation decreases

semisynthetic penicillins

these drugs have the BEST meningal penetration (oxacillin, nafcillin)

seizure

CARBAPENEMS such as MEROPENEM are used to treat meningitis but imipenem has an increased incidence of ? and is NOT approved for the treatment of meningitis

vancomycin

penetration is increased with inflammation (similar action to penicillin) in treatment of meningitis (v______)

amphotercin B

antifungal which is effective in LOW concentrations in combination therapy in the treatment of meningitis with FLUCYTOSINE and Fluconazole

meningitis

the following drugs can be used to treat ?, 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins, penicillin, vancomycin, metronidazole, bactrim, and combo ampho b+flucytosine/fluconazole

metronidazole

antibiotic in which oral levels are similar to that of IV

poor penetration

the following antibiotics have ? ? into the cns and are NOT used for meningitis:
Clindamycin, (Aminoglycosides EXCEPT IN NEWBORNS), FIRST generation cephalosporin cephalexin, Zyvox (linezolid), and KETOCONAZOLE/ITRACONAZOLE

UTI

To treat a ? you would use the following drugs:
Aminoglycosides
ampicillin
Cephalosporins
Sulfonamides
Flouroquinilones
vancomycin
due to their high urine concentrations

UTI

you would NEVER treat a ? with the following drugs
Clindamycin
Chloramphenicol
Minocycline
due to LOW urine concentrations

prostate

the following drugs distribute to the ?, TRIMETHOPRIM and FLOUROQUINOLONES

p-glycoprotein

pumps medications out the organ, most commonly seen in the brain

nafcillin

73% eliminated by the liver, 27% kidney, semisynthetic penicillin. Use in caution if both liver and kidney function are abnormal. Very high blood levels could result in seizures.

oxacillin

54% eliminated by the liver and 46% by the kidney, use caution with liver and kidney abnormalities. Semisynthetic pen. least dependent on renal function for elimination dosage DOES NOT need to be adjusted in RENAL failure if LIVER FUNCTION IS NORMAL! use caution in hepatic/renal failure.

ceftriaxone

44% metabolized by the liver and 56% eliminated in the (kidney) urine. Patient could develop seizures due to renal failure. (C______one)

clindamycin

metabolized in the liver to a metabolite MORE active that the parent compound (C________)

famiclovir

is used to treat HSV I and II, and is metabolized in the liver to the active form PENCICLOVIR

voriconazole

metabolism and elimination by CYP450 liver enzyme. Antifungal (V_______)

p-glycoprotein

the following drugs are eliminated by both CYP450 and ?.
Erythromycin
Biaxin (Clarithryomycin)
Ketoconazole
Maraviroc and should be used in caution with patient on digoxin

p-glycoprotein

series of molecules that pump molecules OUT of organs in the body. mainly found in the CNS (brain). It is located in the KIDNEY, LIVER, GI, and BRAIN.

erythromycin

increases the ABSORPTION OF DIGOXIN by inhibiting the pump on the GI tract and toxicity may occur. (similar inhibition as ketoconazole)

ketoconazole

is a potent inhibitor of P-gly and should never be dosed with Biaxin or Erythromycin or digoxin (K______)

kidney

if the ? is a major route of elimination, you will need to adjust the dose based on function using BUN and CrCL or an increas in adverse events may occur

probenecid

is a drug to treat gout, but blocks the tubular secretion of drugs eliminated by this route.

tubular secretion

sulfonamides and penicillin G are all elimated by GFR and _____ s________

cidofovir

This antiviral medication MUST be given with probenecid to reduce nephrotoxicity. Inhibiting tubular secretion will keep ? in the urine and out of the blood at toxic levels (along with fluid treatments)

glomerular filtration

the major route of elimination for the following:
Ceftazidime
Cefixime
Vancomycin
Aminoglycosides
Aztreonam
Ethambutol
Pyrazinamide
Flucytosine

doxycycline

diffuses across the small bowel wall in the lumen where it is chelated by and eliminated by poo.

doxycline

ELIMINATION LEAST AFFECTED BY THE DEGREE OF KIDNEY FUNCTION! Can be give safely in patients with kidney failure. Eliminated by the fecal route

Rifampin

Mostly eliminated in the GI tract and used in combination with other antibiotics for staph infection and in TB

tissues

amphotercin B has an elimination route that is mostly in ______. Also renal, causes acute renal failure or some degree of renal failure in patients

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set