CH 9 AP

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skeletal, smooth, cardiac

list 3 types of muscle tissue

tendon

a projection of connective tissue beyond the ends of the muscle that attaches to bone

Aponeurosis

a broad fibrous sheet of connective tissue that connects muscles to adjacent muscles

endomysium

muscle fibers are grouped together in fascicles that are surrounded by a layer of connective tissue

perimysium

the fascicles are bundled together and surrounded by another layer of connective tissue, which also fills the spaces between the fascicles

epimysium, perimysium

several layers of fibrous connective tissue called the ___ which surrounds the entire muscle, then cover the ____

deep fascia

the portion of the network of the fasciae that surrounds and penetrates the muscles

subcutaneous fascia

the portion that lies just beneath the skin forming the subcutaneous layer

subserous fascia

the portion that forms the connective tissue layer of the serous membranes covering organs in various body cavities and lining those cavities

nerve fibers

the ___ of a motor neuron are highly branched

motor end plate

each of the branches is connected to the ____ of a single muscle fiber

stimulated

when the motor neuron is ___, the impulse is carried to all of the muscle fibers attached to its branches

single motor neuron

in a way, a ___ controls the contractions of many muscle fibers

motor unit

all the muscle fibers attached to the motor neuron and the motor neuron itself constitute a

fewer, finer

the ___ muscle fibers in the motor unit, the __ the movements that can be produced

ATP molecules

the basic energy source for muscle contraction comes from ___ supplied by the mitochondria

ATPase, ADP

the cross bridges of myosin contain the enzyme ___ that causes ATP to decompose into ____ and phosphate, thereby releasing energy

creatine phosphate

the primary source of regeneration of ATP from ADP is

high energy phosphate bonds

creatine phosphate contains ____ and is 4-6 times more abundant in the muscle fibers than ATP

storehouse

create phosphate cannot directly supply energy to the muscle fiber, it acts as a ___ of energy for the ADP

mitochondria, ATP synthesis

in the __, the enzyme creatine phosphokinase creates creatine phosphate to be used for ___

ADP, ATP

the creatine phosphate converts ___ into ___ by resupplying the phosphate molecule

hemoglobin

oxygen is carried from the lungs by ___ in the blood

myoglobin

when the hemoglobin reaches the muscle, the oxygen is transferred to the __ in hte muscle fiber

myoglobin

is similar to hemoglobin in its oxygen capacity, and reduces the muscles need for continuous blood supply during contraction

oxygen debt

the amount of oxygen needed by the liver to convert the lactic acid back into glucose, plus the amount needed by the muscles to resynthesize ATp and create phosphate and return them to their original concentrations

threshold stimulus

a muscle fiber remains unresponsive until a certain amount of stimulus is applied. the minimal strength required is __

all or none response

when a muscle fiber contracts, it always contracts to the fullest extent possible. because of a muscle fiber cannot contract partially, the phenomenon is ___

staircase effect

a muscle fiber that has been inactive can be subjected to a series of stimuli, such that it undergoes a series of twitches with complete relaxation in between. the strength of each successive contraction increases, reaching a maximum

motor unit recruitment

the ability to cause more than one motor unit to respond to a stimulus

tetanic contraction

results when a sustained forceful contraction lacks even partial relaxation

muscle tone

reponse to nerve impulses originating repeatedly from the spinal cord, and traveling to small numbers of muscle fibers within a muscle

muscle tone

responsible for maitaning posture

concentric

shortening occurs; muscle ends pull closer together and the object is moved. the muscle contracts with force greater than resistance and shortens

eccentric

lengthening occurs; muscle contracts with less force than resistance and lengthens

peristalsis

consists of alternating contractions and relaxations of the longitudinal and circular muscle fibers. it functions to force the contents of a tube along its length

smooth and skeletal muscles

contractions involve the reactions of actin and myosin, are triggered by membrane impulses and the release of calcium ions, and use energy from ATP molecules

skeletal muscles

use acetylcholine as the neurotransmitter`

smooth muscles

uses acetylcholine and norepinephrine as its neurotransmitters.

smooth muscles

Several hormones that cause either contractions or alter the amount of response to the neurotransmitters
affect

smooth muscle

muscle is slower to contract and relax

smooth muscle

can maintain a forceful contraction for a longer period of time with a given amount of ATP.

smooth muscle

fibers can change length without changes in tautness. as the hollow organs become filled, the muscles can stretch without internal pressure changing.

skeletal muscle

can contract individually

cardiac muscle

works in a network. When one portion of the
network is stimulated, the impulse travels to the other fibers in the network. It then contracts as a unit. It is self-exciting and rhythmic, and the entire network responds in an all-or-none manner.

origin

of a muscle is the end of the muscle attached to an immovable part.

insertion

is the end of a muscle attached to a moveable part.

insertion, origin

when a muscle contracts, the ___ is pulled toward the ___

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