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Chapter 3 Campbell Biology vocabulary and questions

Organic Compounds

carbon based molecules

Hydrocarbons

compounds composed of only hydrogen and carbon

Carbon Skeleton

the chain of carbon molecules in a molecule

Isomers

element with different # of neutrons

Functional Groups

a group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a particular compound

Hydrophilic

water loving (soluble in water)

Hydroxyl Group

-OH

Carbonyl Group

>C=O

Carboxyl Group

-COOH

Amino Group

-NH2

Phosphate Group

-OPO3^-2

Methyl Group

-CH3

Macromolecules

carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids

Polymers

a large molecule consisting of many identical chains linked together

Monomers

one of the repeating parts of a polymer

Dehydration Reaction

a reaction that removes

Hydrolysis

a molecule of waterreaction with the breaking of bonds with water

Enzymes

specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells

Carbohydrate

a class of molecules ranging from the small sugar molecules dissolved in soft drinks to large polysaccharides like starches

Monosaccharides

a carbohydrate monomer

Disaccharide

two monosaccharides linked together

Starch

a storage polysaccharide in plants

Glycogen

animal storage of glucose

Cellulose

polymer of glucose, able to form microfibrils in plants

Chitin

structural polysaccharide used by insects to build exoskeleton

Hydrophobic

water fearing

Fat

large lipid made from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids

Unsaturated Fatty Acid

fatty acid containing one or more double bonds

Saturated Fatty Acid

fatty acid containing only single bonds

Trans Fats

a form of fat that recent research associates with health risks

Phospholypids

contain a phosphate group and attach to 2 fatty acids rather than three

Steroids

lipids containing 4 fused rings

Cholesterol

component in cell membranes

Anabolic Steroids

synthetic variants of the male testosterone

Protein

a polymer made of 20 amino acids

Amino Acids

amino group w/ carboxyl group

Peptide Bond

covalent linkage between peptides to form a poly peptide

Polypeptide

a polymer made of peptides

DNA

genetic inheritance polymer

Gene

amino acid sequence program of inheritance

RNA

translates sequence of programming into proteins

double Helix

to polynucleotides wrap around eachother

_____ is formed when a Hydroxyl Group is added

alcohol

_____ is formed when a Carbonyl Group is added

aldehyde and keytone

_____ is formed when a Hydroxyl Group and a Carbonyl Group are added

sugar

_____ is formed when a Carboxyl Group is added

acid

____ is formed when an Amino Group is added

amine

_____ is formed when a Phosphate Group is added

organic phosphate-found in ATP

_____ is formed when a Methyl Group is added

methylated compound

_____ made up of only glucose monosacchrides used for storage in plants

starch

most carbohydrates are hydrophilic or hydrophobic

hydrophilic

fats and lipids are hydrophilic or hydrophibic

hydrophobic

Denaturation

polypeptides unravel, losing their specific shape, and changes its function

Protean Primary Structure

linear sequence of amino acids

Protein Secondary Structure

alpha helix and beta pleated sheet formed by hydrogen bonds between atoms of the polypeptide backbone

Protein Tertiary Structure

three-dimensional shape formed by interactions between R groups

Protein Quaternary Structure

association of multiple peptides

Nucleic Acids

gene polymers

Glucose

C6H12O6

Triose

3 carbon sugar

Pentose

5 carbon sugar

Hexose

6 carbon sugar

Sucrose

Glucose+Fructose

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