Campbell Biology Chapter 4

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Chapter 4 Campbell Biology vocabulary and questions

Light Microscope

visible light is passed through a specimen, creating a magnified image through a lens with a resolution up to 0.2 µm

Magnification

increase of apparent size of an object

Micrograph

image taken from a microscope

Cell Theory

all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells

Electron Microscope

focuses a beam of electrons through a specimen, can view structures as small as 2nm, Developed in the 1950's (up to 10,000,000X

Scanning Electron Microscope

uses a beam of electrons to scan the surface of a cell

Transmission Electron Microscope

used to study internal details of structure

Prokaryotic Cells

no nucleus-bacteria and archaea

Eukaryotic Cells

have a membrane enclosed nucleus-protists, fungi, plants, animals

Chromosomes

carry genes made of DNA of cell

Ribosomes

tiny structures that make proteins according to instructions from the genes

Cytoplasym

the interior both types of cells

Nucleoid

similar to nucleus, not enclosed by membrane, contains DNA coiled inside

Flagella

locomotion organelles of some bacteria, used to propel cell through its environment

Organelles

little organs which perform specific functions in the cell

Cellular Metabolism

chemical activities of the cells, occurs within the organelles

Nucleus

core of cell, contains most of the cell's DNA, controls most of cell's activities by directing protein synthesis

Chromatin

DNA and proteins that form chromosomes-(when cell is not dividing)

Nuclear Envelope

the double membrane enclosing the nucleus perforated with pores to regulate traffic with the cytoplasm

Nucleolus

region in nucleus that synthesizes RNA, proteins imported from cytoplasm to form the subunits of ribosomes

Endomembrane System

organelles inside the membrane of a eukaryotic cell

Endoplasmic Reticulum

extensive network in the eukaryotic cell continuous with outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosomes studded and ribosome free regions, within cytoplasm

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

ER area lacking ribosomes

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

ER area rough with ribosomes(who make membrane proteins)

Glyoprotein

protein synthesized by ribosomes with sugar chain attached

Transport Vesicle

vesicle that travels from one part of the cell to another

Golgi Apparatus

modify, store, and ship from the ER, Cis face is receiving, Trans is shipping

Lysosome

membranous sac of digestive enzymes, contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest engulfed food or damaged organelles

Vacuoles

large vesicles that have a variety of functions

Peroxisomes

metabolic compartments that transfer hydrogen atoms from various substrates to oxygen producing hyrogen peroxide

Mitochondria

organelles that carry out cellular respiration, converts chemical energy of foods into chemical energy for the cell (ATP) "POWER HOUSE"

Mitochondrial Matrix

inner membrane of mitochondria containing enzymes and substrates for the citric acid cycle, ----has enzymes for cellular respiration----

Cristae

the folds that increase membrane's surface area, enhancing the mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP

Chloroplasts

the photosynthesizing organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes

Stroma

thick fluid containing chloroplast DNA and ribosomes as well as many enzymes

Thylakoid

a network of interworking sacs inside the cholorplast

Granum

a stack of thylakoids--'solar power packs'

Endosymbiont Theory

states that the mitochondria and chloroplasts were formerly small prokaryotes that begin living within larger cells

Cytoskeleton

a network of protein fibers extending through the cytoplasm of a cell, acting like a skeleton

Microfilaments

'actin filaments' solid rods composed of mostly globular proteins called actin arranged in a double chain

Intermediate Filaments

made of fibrous proteins that super coil into thicker coils reinforce into cell shape and to anchor certain organelles

Microtubules

straight hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called tubulins ---Found in cilia and flagella---

Cilia

used for locomotion, tails on cells, short, numerous, oar like

Extracellular Matrix

holds cell membranes together, protects and supports the plasma membrane

Integrins

transmembrane protein attaches the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton

Cellwall

disguishes the animal cell from the plant cell, protects the cell, provides skeletal support, keeps the plant upright

Plasmodesmata

channels between cells for transport

Anton Van Leewenhoek

used hand grinded lenses for a microscope

Compound Microscope

magnifies up to 1000X

Robert Hooke

coined term 'cellulae' (cells in cork he examined)

eukaryote

means true kernal

prokaryote

means before the kernal

Vesicles

sacs made of membrane in the cytoplasm

Cis

receiving side of Golgi Apparatus

Trans

sending side of Golgi Apparatus

Central Vacuole

helps the cell grow in size by absorbing water and enlarging

Apoptosis

self-destruct command for lysosomes in cell

ATP

adenosine triphosphate-cell's sugar

Flagella

longer, fewer, whip-like, used for cell propulsion

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