Euro ch.29

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Leonid Brezhnev

(1906-1982) created the Brezhnev Doctrine which declared that the Soviet Union had the right to be involved in the politics of other communist countries; led a Soviet invasion of Afghanistan that led to tensions with the United States and weakened morale throughout the Soviet Union from military failure

Mikhail Gorbachev

(b.1931) started a policy of perestroika, or reconstruction; supported private ownership and shifting the economy toward a free market; allowed criticism of the Soviet Union and free expression through his policy of glasnost, or openness; left office in 1991, making way for the Commonwealth of Independent States and ending communism in the Soviet Union

Lech Walesa

(b.1944) led the Gdansk strike against the Polish government in 1980

Helmut Kohl

(b.1930) chancellor of West Germany who lead the movement toward the unification of East and West Germany, which became official in 1989

Boris Yeltsin

(1931-2007) leader of the Soviet Union after Gorbachev left office; suspended Parliament in September 1993, attacked the Parliament building on October 4 of that year, and a new Parliament was created in December

Vladimir Putin

b.1952) became President of the Russian Federation in 2000, as chosen by Yeltsin; restarted the war against Chechnya, gaining political support; wanted to make Russia a major world power once again; though he began with support, he soon became a leading force against the American invasion of Iraq; appointed Dmitri Medvedev as his successor

Ayatollah Khomeini

(1902-1989) united the Iranian middle and lower classes to overthrow the current government, leading to an Islamic government

Taliban

(1998) Muslim group that gained control of Afghanistan in 1998; led a strict rule including limited women's rights and harsh punishments for crimes; allowed Al Qaeda to set up training camps in their country; their rule was overthrown by the United States in 2001; became active again in 2008

Al Qaeda

Muslim terrorist group; members of their training camps led the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States; responsible for train bombings in Madrid, Spain on March 11, 2004

Osama Bin Laden

(b.1957) Islamic extremist; saw the United States bases in Saudi Arabia as a "new invasion by Western Crusaders"

Saddam Hussein

(1937-2006) led the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait; became Iraq's oppressive leader; United States became determined to overthrow him after the September 11 attacks and clear Iraq of its alleged weapons of mass destruction

Helsinki Accords

(1975) signed during Gerald Ford's presidency between the United States, Soviet Union, and other European Nations; acknowledged Soviet control in Easter Europe and basic rights of citizens, which the nations promised to accept

perestroika

policy of "reconstructing" under the Soviet leader Gorbachev; attemps at political and economical form in the Soviet Union

glasnost

"openness" within the Soviet Union, started by Gorbachev; allowed citizens to criticize the Soviet Union and communism for the first time; less censorship and more free expression began

Brezhnev Doctrine

(1968) created by Leonid Brezhnev; stated that the Soviet Union had the right to be involved in the politics of other communist countries

ethnic cleansing

(1992) Serbian policy started when Serbia and Croatia decided to split Bosnia-Herzegovina; attempt to remove the Bosnian Muslims from their homeland during this conflict, leading to many being killed or removed by force

radical Islamism

name given by scholars to those who strictly interpret Islam and its teachings; rejected the ideas of the Western world

Wahhabism

very strict form of Islam that influenced the educational system in Saudi Arabia

jihad

struggle or religious war; waged by Afghanistan against the Soviet Union, who withdrew from the war in 1989, turning Afghan attention toward the United States

madrasas

schools controlled by the Pakistani government that taught reformed, or radical, Islam, rejection of nonreligious values, intolerance to other religions, and hatred toward the United States, Israel and the Western world

war on terrorism

(2003) started by George W. Bush after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001; the United States soon overthrew the Taliban in Afghanistan; in 2002, Bush targeted Saddam Hussein and alleged Iraqi weapons; war continues to the present day; 2009, Barack Obama announced to withdraw troops by the summer of 2010

Tiananmen Square

(May 1989) location of pro-democracy protest in Beijing, violently put down by The Communist People's Republic of China

Commonwealth of Independent States

after the December 1991 fall of the Soviet Union

Chechnya

(2000) Vladimir Putin of Russia restarted war against this country; September 2003, Chechens captured an elementary school and held over 1200 hostage, becoming one of the major acts of terrorism in Russia

Solidarity

union promised by the government to workers to end the Gdansk strike on August 31, 1980; recognized as an independent Union after the head of the Polish Communist Party was replaced that September

German reunification

-(November 1989) East Germany opened the Berlin Wall; free travel between East and West Germany soon resumed; the reunification of Germany was accepted in 1989 by the European Economic Community and in 1990 by the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, and France

European Economic Community (EEC)

accepted the unification of Germany in late 1989

August coup

(1991) forces Gorbachev brought into government turned against him, and he was kept in house arrest in Crimea as troops invaded Moscow; collapsed in two days; celebration of its failure was one of the largest demonstrations in Russian history; led to the December 1991 end of the Soviet Union, Gorbachev left office, and the Commonwealth of Independent States was introduced

Ethnic diversity (Yugoslavia)

borders include: Roman Catholic Croats and Slovenes who use the Latin alphabet; Eastern Orthodox Serbs, Montenegrins, and Macedonians who use the Cyrillic alphabet; and Muslim Bosnians and Albanians; ethnic tensions eventually arose

Islamic fundamentalism

belief that a pure or reformed Islam must be a part of the modern world; emphasizes religious practice and worship

Muslim reformism

another name for Islamic fundamentalism, which became a strong force after the Iranian Revolution

Truman Doctrine

policy of US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures

Marshall Plan

restored prosperity to West by providing broad economic aid to European states working together for their mutual benefit

Suez intervention

made Europe realize that without US support, Western Europe could not use military force to impose their will on the rest of the world

Brezhnev Doctrine

sought to sustain the Communist governments of Eastern Europe and to prevent liberalization

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