Psychology: Health and Stress

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24 terms

What was the Social Readjustment Rating Scale designed to reveal?

SRRS assesses stress in terms of life events, positive or negative, threat necessitate change and adaptation. Holmes and Rahe found a relationship between degree of life stress (as measured on the scale) and major health problems.

What roles do hassles and uplifts plan in the stress of life, according to Lazarus?

According to Lazarus, daily hassles typically cause more stress than major life changes. Positive experiences in life-uplifts- can neutralize the effects of many of the hassles, however.

How do approach-approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance conflicts differ?

In an approach-approach conflict, a person must decide between equally desirable alternatives. In an avoidance-avoidance conflict, the choice is between two undesirable alternatives. In an approach-avoidance conflict, a person is both drawn to and repelled by a single choice.

How do the unpredictability and lack of control over the stressor affect it's impact?

Stressors that are unpredictable and uncontrollable have greater impact than those that are predictable and controllable.

For people to function effectively and find satisfaction on the job, what nine variables should fall within their comfort zone?

The nine variables that should fall within a worker's comfort zone are workload, clarity of job description and evaluation criteria, physical variables, job status, accountability, task variety, human contact, physical challenge, and mental challenge.

How do people typically react to catastrophic events?

Most people cope quite well with catastrophic events. However, some people develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a prolonged, severe stress reaction, often characterized by flashbacks, nightmares, or intrusive memories of the traumatic event.

How might historical racism affect the health of African Americans?

Some researchers believe that African Americans have higher levels of high blood pressure than members of other groups because of stress due to historical racism. African Americans who express high levels of concern about racism display larger cardiovascular responses to experimentally induced stressors than do their peers in other ethnic groups, who express lower levels of concern.

What is the "general adaptation syndrome?

The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) proposed by Selye is the predictable sequence of reactions that organisms show in response to stressors. It consists of the alarm stage, the resistance stage, and the exhaustion stage.

What are the roles of primary and secondary appraisals when a person is confronted with a potentially stressful event?

Lazarus maintains that, when confronted with a potentially stressful event, a person engages in a cognitive appraisal process consisting of (1) a primary appraisal, to evaluate the relevance of the situation to one's well being (whether it will be positive, irrelevant, or negative).

What is the difference between problem-focused and emotion-focused coping?

Problem-focused coping is a direct response aimed at reducing, modifying, or eliminating the source of stress; emotion-focused coping involves reappraising a stressor in order to reduce its emotional impact.

How do the biomedical and biopsychosocial models differ in their approaches to health and illness?

The biomedical model focuses on illness rather than on health and explains illness in terms of biological factors. The biopsychosocial model focuses on health as well as on illness and holds that both are determined by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors.

What are the Type A and Type B behavior patterns?

The Type A behavior pattern, often cited as a risk factor for coronary heart disease, is characterized by a sense of time urgency, impatience, excessive competitive drive, hostility, and easily aroused anger. The Type B behavior pattern is characterized by a relaxed, easygoing approach to life, without the time urgency, impatience, and hostility of the Type A pattern.

How do psychological factors influence cancer patients quality of life?

Cancer patients can improve their quality of life by maintaining an optimistic outlook, accepting the reality of their situation, and maintaining a sense of humor. Social support and psychotherapy can help them do so.

What are the effects of stress on the immune system?

Stress has been associated with lowered immune response and with increased symptoms of many infectious diseases.

What four personal factors are associated with health and resistance to stress?

Personal factors related to health and resistance to stress are optimism, hardiness, religious involvement, and social support.

What are the relationships among gender, ethnicity, and health?

Women are more likely than men to seek medical care, but women's needs have often been ignored by medical researchers and health care providers. African Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans have higher rates of many diseases than do white Americans. Asian Americans are comparatively very healthy.

What is the most dangerous health-threatening behavior?

Smoking is considered the most dangerous health-related behavior because it is directly related to over 400,000 deaths each year, including deaths from heart diseases, and stroke.

What are some health risks of alcohol abuse?

Alcohol abuse damages virtually every organ in the body, including the liver, stomach, skeletal muscles, heart, and brain. Alcoholics are three times as likely to die in motor vehicle accidents as are non-alcoholics.

What are some benefits of regular aerobic exercise?

Regular aerobic exercise reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease, increases muscular strength, moderates the effects of stress, makes bones denser and stronger, and helps one maintain a desirable weight.

What are the benefits and risks associated with alternative medicine?

Alternative medicine-the use of any treatment that has not been proven scientifically to be effective-can benefit individuals who find alternative treatments that are effective. However, many patients increase their risk of poor outcomes by not telling their use of alternative treatments. And some people delay seeking necessary conventional medical treatment because they believe that alternative approaches will work.

How do the unpredictability and lack of control over a stressor affect it's impact?

Unpredictable stressors are more difficult to cope with than predictable stressors. Well-being is profoundly influenced by the degree to which we feel a sense of control over our lives. We are less subject to stress when we have the power to do something about it.

For people to function effectively and find satisfaction on the job, what nine variables should fall within their comfort zone?

Workload, clarity of job description and evaluation criteria, physical variables, job status, accountability, task variety, human contact, physical challenge, mental challenge.

What is the general adaptation syndrome?

The predictable sequence of reactions (alarm, resistance, and exhaustion stages) that organisms show in response to stressors.

What are the roles of primary and secondary appraisals when a person is confronted with a potentially stressful event?

Primary appraisal is an evaluation of the meaning and significance of the situation-whether its effect on one's well-being is positive, irrelevant, or negative. During secondary appraisal, if people judge the situation to be within their control, they make the evaluation of available resources-physical (health, energy, stamina), social (support network), psychological (skills, morale, self-esteem), material (money, tools, equipment), and time.

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