Chapter 16 - The Endocrine System

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Dr. Cooper's Class

are autocrines and paracrines considered to be part of the endocrine system?

No

chemicals that exert effects on the same cells tat secrete them

autocrines

How are hormones transported?

through the blood

how are the anterior pituitary hormones classified?

all are proteins

locally acting chemicals that affect cells other than those that secrete them

paracrines

long-distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph

hormones

Name the 5 endocrine glands

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal

Name the 6 Anterior pituitary hormones

GH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL

what are steroids synthesized from?

cholesterol

what are the 3 ways hormones are stimulated

humoral, neural, hormonal

what are the 4 amino acid-based hormones

amines, thyroxine, peptides, and proteins

What are the 5 Hormonal actions on target cells

1. Alter plasma membrane permeability, of membrane potential by opening or closing ion channels
2. Stimulate synthesis of proteins or regulatory molecules
3. Activate or deactivate enzyme systems
4. Induce secretory activity
5. Stimulate mitosis

What are the differences of endocrine regulation and neural regulation.

Hormonal regulation response is a lot slower but the effects tend to last longer than neural regulation

what are the effects of hyper secretion of GH

gigantism

what are the effects of hypo secretion

pituitary dwarfism

what are the effects of prolactin?

stimulates milk productoin

what are the gonadotropins?

FSH, LH,

What are the steps of cAMP signaling mechanism

1. Hormone binds to the receptor
2. Receptor activates G protein
3. G protein activates adenylate cylase
4. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cAMP
5. cAMP activates protein kinases

what are the two main classes of hormones?

amino acid based hormones and steroids

what are the two steroidal hormones?

gonadal and adrenocortical

what has both neural and hormonal functions?

the hypothalamus

what is prolactin primarily controlled by?

prolactin-inhibiting hormone

what is the difference in exocrine glands and endocrine?

exocrine excrete things such as sweat and saliva out of the body whereas endocrine glads excrete things like hormones into the bloodstream

what produces Growth hormone?

somatotrophs

what produces thyroid stimulating hormone?

thyrotrophs

what regulates Growth hormone?

GHRH- growth hormone releasing hormone
GHIH- grwoth hormone inhibiting hormone

what stimulates TSH

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone

where is prolactin secreted

the lactotrophs

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