Integumentary System, The Language of Dermatology

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Chapter 3 of Medical Language for Modern Health Care

carcinoma

a malignant and invasive epithelial tumor

cutaneous

pertaining to the skin

dermal

connective tissue layer of the skin beneath the epidermis

dermatologist

medical specialist in diseases of the skin

integumentary

organ system that covers the body, the skin being the main organ within the system

lesion

pathological change or injury in a tissue

pathology

study of disease

prognosis

forecasting of the probable course of a disease

squamous cell

flat, scalelike epithelial cell

epithelial

tissue that covers surfaces or lines cavities

epidermis

top layer of skin

dermis

connective tissue layer of the skin beneath the epidermis

hypodermis

subcutaneous fat

melanin

black pigment found in skin, hair, retina

metastasis

spread of disease from one part of the body to another

sebum

waxy secretion of the sebaceous glands

collagen

major protein of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone

hypodermic

tissue layer below the dermis

transdermal

going across or through the skin

mole

benign localized area of melanin-producing cells

allergy

hypersensitivity to an allergen

pruritus

itching

vesicle

small sac containing liquid; for example a blister

-oma

tumor, mass

epi-

upon, above, over

-ic

pertaining to

-logy

study of, to study

-cyte

cell

ID

intradermal

SC

subcutaneous

IM

intramuscular

intra-

within, inside

semi-

half

sub-

below

trans-

across, through

TB

tuberculosis

-gen

formation, producing

MRSA

methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

the most comon bacterium to invade the skin is

staphylococcus aureus

pediculosis

an infestation with lice

scleroderma

thickening and hardening of the skin due to new collagen formation

acne

inflammatory disease of sebaceous gland and hair follicles

androgen

hormone that promotes masculine characteristics

comedo

a whitehead or blackhead

cyst

an abnormal fluid-containing sac

pustule

small protuberance on the skin that contains pus

albinism

genetic disorder with lack of melanin

alopecia

partial or complete loss of hair, naturally or from medicine

cortex

outer portion of an organ, such as bone

cuticle

nonliving epidermis at the base of the finger and toe nails

medulla

central portion of a structure

apocrine

apocrine sweat glands open into the hair follicle

eccrine

coiled sweat gland that occurs in skin all over the body

hypoxia

below normal levels of oxygen in tissues, gases or blood

merocrine

another name for eccrine

onychomycosis

condition of a fungus infection in a nail

pheromone

substance that carries and generatesa physical attraction for other people

-iasis

abnormal condition, state of

-itis

inflammation, infection

-ation

process

-osis

condition

an-

not, lack of, without

anti-

against

-oid

resembling

-derma

skin

-al

pertaining to

andr/o

male, masculine

-rrhea

flow, discharge

-ism

action, condition, process

hypo-

below, deficient

myc/o

fungus

-oxia

oxygen condition

-graft

transplant, splice

-ate

composed of, pertaining to

auto-

self, same

homo-

same, alike

hetero

different

allo-

strange, other

macro-

large

-phage

to eat

debridement

the removal of injured or necrotic tissue

edema

excessive collection of fluid in cells and tissues

abrasion

area of skin that has been scraped off

clot

the mass of fibrin and cells that is produced in a wound

keloid

raised, irregular lumpy, shiny scar due to excess collagen fiber production during healing of a wound

laceration

a tear of the skin

macrophage

large white blood cell that removes bacteria, foreign particles and dead cells

platelet

cell fragment involved in clotting process

scab

crust that forms over a wound or sore during healing

In which layer of skin would you find adipose tissue?

Hypodermis

what are the accessory organs of the skin?

Hair follicles, sebaceous, glands, sweat glands, nail roots

which layer of the skin contains sweat pores?

epidermis

which layer ofthe skin is the thickest?

dermis

what is the uppermost layer of the skin

epidermis

what do nerve ending in skin do?

detect touch, heat, pressure, pain, cold, vibration and injury

what are the 4 functions of the epidermis?

protect, withstand, shed and barrier

the epidermis is what kind of barrier?

waterproof

what does the epidermis protect

underlying structures

what does the epidermis help the body withstand

toxic pollutants

what does the epidermis shed

superficial cells

what condition presents with itching, redness and peeling of the foot?

tinea pedis

give 2 examples of parasitic infections of the skin

scabies and lice

scabies are because of what parasite

mites

your patient has pruritis, redness of the skin, occasioinal vesicles, a rash, and a possible allergic reaction; what is their condition?

dermatitis

your patient has itchy, red, flaky patches os skin that are covered with silvery scales; what is the condition?

psoriasis

what is the classic sign of SLE?

butterfly rash over the cheeks and bridge of nose

aka butterfly rash

malar rash

what are the major signs of scleroderma?

thickening and hardening of the skin to make it feel leathery

what makes the dust mite a problem for humans?

many people are allergic to the inhaled feces of the dust mite

if your patient presents with inflammation, itching and excoriation with red, dry, scaly patches on their skin; what is the condition?

eczema

why are lice such a problem to humans?

they attach their eggs to hair and clothing

what are lice eggs called

nits

what layer of skin contains sweat glands?

dermis

what causes decubitus ulcers?

pressure on the bony projections that cuts off blood supply to the skin

name 3 examples of viral skin infections

chicken pox, shingles, warts

what is one important thing to remember about collagen diseases

can have a dramatic effect on the body because it is all over the body

what is the term that means malignant and invasive tumor

carcinoma

the study of the cause of development and structural changes in disease is known as what?

pathology

what is the term for hypo sensivity to an allergen

allergy

define lesion

any injury to tissue

describe a squamous cell?

a flat, scale-like epithelial cell

what is the medical term for spread of disease from one part of the body to another

metastasis

define prognosis

forecasting the probable outcome or course of a disease

what color is melanin?

black

this is the protein that forms connective tissue

collagen

what is alopecia?

partial or complete hair loss

what is the study and treatment of skin and its associated organs?

dermatology

define pruritis

itching

what type of injection is TB?

Intradermal

what type of injection is given with a short thin needle that goes into the epidermis between the layers of the stratum corneum and stratum basale? Give abbrev too.

intradermal, ID

what type of injection is given with a longer needle to pierce through to the hypodermis?

subcutaneous

give and example of the function of excretion?

water and waste products lost through the skin (ie sweating)

what is needed for the body to synthesize vitamin D?

15 - 30 minutes of sunlight each day

what are the functions of the skin

protection, water resistance,temperature regulation, vit d synthesis, sensation, secretion, excretion, social functions

what are the functions of scalp hair

maintains body heat

what are the functions of ear and nose hair

trap foreign particles

what are the functions of body hair

has none

what is the function of vit D?

it is essential for bone growth and maintenance

what is the most common symptom of rosacea?

redness on cheeks

why with rosacea is the common symptom seen

underlying capillaries become enlarged and show through to the skin

name 2 examples of fugal infections of the skin

tinea pedis, candida

If your patient has a viral infection that causes papules, macules, vesicles and itching what are they suffering from?

chickenpox

in this chapter we discussed 3 types of skin cancers, what where they?

basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma

why are scabies such a problem for humans?

they live and lay their eggs under your skin

how many layers make up a hair

3 they are the medulla, cortex and cuticle

how does the skin regulate body temperature?

through vasoconstriction and vasodilation

what do sebaceous glands secrete?

sebum

papule

small circumscribed elevation of the skin

intradermal

within the epidermis

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