Female Reproductive System

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Ovary

Primary Sex Organ
Ova/eggs and hormones are made here.

Secondary Sex Organs

All parts other than ovary, serve as sexual attractants, internal and external, body physique, pattern of body hair, development of breasts.

Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, ovaries

Internal Organ- located in pelvic cavity

mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris

External genitalia, located in perineum(region between legs)

Fetal

The gametes(ova) of female are completely formed but not totally matured dural ____ development of ovary.

Menstraution

Discharge of blood and solid tissue from uterus at the end of each ovulation cycle.

ovaries

Produce ova and female sex hormones

uterine tubes

Convey ovum toward uterus, site of fertilization, convey developing embryo to uterus

uterus

site of implantation, protects and sustains life of embryo and fetus during pregnancy, active role in parturition.

vagina

conveys uterine secretions to outside of body, receives and erect penis and semen during copulation and ejaculation, passage for fetus during parturition

labia majora

enclose and protect other external reproductive organs

labia minora

forms margins of vestibule of the vagina, protect openings of vagina and urethra

clitoris

glands of this is richly supplied with sensory nerve endings associated with feeling pleasure during sexual stimulation

vestibule

cleft between labia minora that includes vaginal and urethral openings

vestibular glands

secrete fluid that moistens and lubricates the vestibule and vaginal opening during intercourse

mammary glands

produce and secrete milk for nourishment of an infant

ovaries
broad ligament

small, paired solid masses suspended on either side of the uterus by way of _____ ____.

Broad Ligament
Ovarian Ligament
Suspensory Ligament

Ovarian(top left), Suspensory(top right), Broad(bottom)

Each ovary is supported by a _____ ______: double fold of peritoneum.
Also supported by the _____ _____: anchored to wall of uterus
Supported by ______ ______: attached to pelvic wall.
Identify on Picture

Medulla- Between dots
Cortex- all aroun

Ovary is divided inter an inner _____(loose CT, blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves) and an outer _____(ovarian follicles).

Identify on Picture

Primordial follices

________(Immature) ______ are formed during fetal development- awaiting their turn to enter the developmental cycle prior to ovulation.

Primary

Primordial follicles that enter the developmental cycle, under hormonal regulation, first form _______ follicles that are composed of the oocyte(egg) and a surrounding layer of epithelial(follicular) cells.

Secondary Follicle
Estrogens

________ _____- The follicular cells thicken into a layer of granulosa cells that synthesize ____. An estrogen rich follicular fluid forms small antral lakes.

Mature(Graafian) Follice
Cumulus Oophorus

______(___) Follicle- All but one developing follicle usually degenerate, the mature follicle exhibiting fused antral lakes into a single antrum. The oocyte sits on a pedestal of granulosa cells called the ______ _______.

ovulated

On day 14 of ovarian development, the oocyte is ____(extruded from mature follicle into the peritoneal cavity of female).

Fimbriae

______- Finger like ext. from the uterine tube, reach out and surround ovary at time of ovulation to catch the ovulated oocyte so it does not fall deep into peritoneal cavity. They direct the oocyte toward opening of uterine tube.

Infundibulum

Opening of uterine tube is the ________ that leads to the uterine tube proper.

Corpus Luteum
Progesterone

________ ______ formation:
After release of oocyte, follicle collapses and bleed into antrum. As clotted blood is slowly reabsorbed, the granulosa and theca cells multily and old follicle becomes this. This structure secretes large amts of _____ to stimulate the uterus to prepare for possible implantation of fertilized ovum.

Corpus Albicans

If pregnancy does not occur, corpus luteum atrophies from days 14-26 by a process called involution. The level of progesterone dorps, menstruation occurs and the active corpus luteum becomes an inactive scar____ _____.

Corpus Albicans

If pregnancy does occur, corpus luteum remains active for 3 mo. The elevated progesterone levels are required to sustgain early pregnancy. Eventually the takes over the role of progesterone secretion and corpus luteum is no longer needed so turns into _______ ______.

Uterine Tube

Functions to transmit egg from ovary to uterus.
Pass medially to uterus and open into it.
About 4 in long
Funnel shaped infundibulum near ovary with fimbriae which are designed to direct or guide ovulated ova into lumen of tube.

Ciliated simple columnar

Epithelial lining of uterine tube is....

Peristalsis
Cilia

The ovum is moved along by ____ and wave-like sweeping by _____. It takes 4-7 days to move through tube.

Tubal Pregnancy

Occasionally the fertilized ovum with implant in wall of uterine tube-______ ______ which is a very painful condition that results in spontaneous abortion.

Uterus

In picture:
Uterus
Urinary Bladder
Vagina

Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ, 3X2X1, located above vagina and bends forward over bladder.

Uterine tube(top left)
Fundus
Body
Cervix
Vagina

Explain the parts of Uterus

(A) endometrium
(B)myometrium
(C)perimetrium

Wall of uterus consists of three layers:
(A) inner mucosal laer, columnar epithelium with glands
(B) thick muscular layer, expels fetus during childbirth
(C) outer, serosa

Stratum Functionale
Stratum Basale

On picture, Functionale is on top, Basale is on bottom.

Endometrium consits of two regions:
_____ ______:
-superficial, columnar epithelium with secretory glands, shed each moth during menst.
______ _____:
-deeper highly vascularized layer, responsible for regenerating stratum functionale each month

Uterine Cavity

________ ______ is continuous superiorly with uterine rubes and inferiorly with vagina via cervical canal.

internal os
external os

_______ __- opening between uterine cavity and cervical canal
______ ___- opening between cervical canal and vagina

Prolapse

Uterus is held in place by many ligaments that anchor within the pelvis. Damage to ligaments during childbirth may cause_______ of uterus into vagina.

Stratified Squamous Epithelium

The vagina is a fibromascular tube lined with ________ ________ ______ for wear and tear. About 3.5 in length

Hymen

The ______ is a thin membrane which partially closes off the vaginal orfice proir to first penetraton. No mucous glands within vaginal wall. All lubrication come from vestibular glands that secrete mucous at vaginal opening.

Mucosal, Muscular Layer and Fibrous Layer

Three layers of vaginal wall:

Mucosal(inner) Layer

Layer of vagina that has stratified squamous epithelium, no glands, thrown into folds called vaginal rugae and act as friction ridges for intercourse and allow for distension during childbirth.

Muscular Layer

Layer of vaginal of smooth muscle, longitudinally oriented and involuntary used primarily during childbirth. There are some strands of skeletal muscle near the vaginal orifice to partially contrisct this opening. This under voluntary control.

Fibrous layer(adventitia)

Layer of vagina that attaches vagina to surrounding tissues.

proliferative(a)
secretory(b)
premenstrual(c)

Three phages of the endometrium that occur during monthly cycle:

Proliferative Phase

-period of rebuilding endometrial tissue lost at last menstruation
-estrogen stimulates the stratum functionale to be rebuilt

Secretory Phase

-period of further endometrial thickening
-progesterone from the corpus luteum stimulates this phase where the glandsbecome taller, wider and more convoluted
- it creates thick, wet bed for potential implantation of fertilized ovum

Premenstrual phase

- period of endometrial degeneration occuring last 2-3 days of cycle
- when corpus luteum involutes(no pregancy) the spira arteries in endo. contract causing endometrial ischemia
- this leads to tissue necrosis(dead)
-menstruation then begins

Mons pubis, clitoris, labia minora(hairless), vestibule, labia majora(pubic hair)

Identify the picture going clockwise. These are ext. reproductive structures found in perineum and referred to as vuvla or pudendum.
Vestibular glands are not shown.

Mons pubis

Subcutaneous fat pat covering bony pubic symphysis.
Covered by pubic hair
Cushions and protects pubic symphysis and other sensitive parts of vulva during intercourse

Labia Majora

Serves to enclose and protect other organs of vagina
Analogous to scrotum in male
Two thickened folds
Subcutaneous fat
Merges superiorly/anteriorly to form the mons pubis and coverge posteriorly on the perineum
Covered with hair and contain sebaceous and sweat glands.

Labia Minor

-Lie within cleft of laba majora, flattened, enclose vestibule of vagina, hairless but contain sebaceous glands, protective, highly vascularized, form the prepuce or hood of clitoris.

Perineal Body

The union of labia posterior to vaginal opening is the fourchette. Normally torn after first vaginal birth. Space between vagina and anus is the _____ _____- large mass of connective tissue. In females it is incised during childbirth.

Mammary Gland

Secretes milk during pregnancy, modified sebaceous gland.

nipple

______ openings of 15-20 lactiferous ducts open here, circularly arranged smooth muscle, therefore erection.

areola

_____ circular pigmented area, rough appearance due to presence of sebaceous glands near surface. Pink in color until first pregnancy, then permanantly turns to dark brown color.

Lactiferous sinus

_____ _____ lumen of each lactiferous duct expands near nipple to form this and this is where milk is stored before it drains at nipple.

Lactiferous sinus
Lactiferous duct
Alveolar glands in lobule

Suspensory Ligaments

_________ ________ support the weight of the breast and extend from the deep fascia over pectoralis major to the skin.

Retromammary Space

What is the black arrow pointing to.

Axillary Lymph Nodes
Parasternal Lymph Nodes

An axillary tail of fat extends toward armpit. The majority of lymph drains back to ____ ____ ___ through this axillary tail.
25% drains to midline _____ ____ ____ as well as across to opposite breast.

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