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Basic review

What is the function of the air passages beneath the conchae that create turbulence within the nasal cavity?

They ensure that air is warmed and humidified.

The smallest passageways in the lung to have ciliated epithelia are ______________

respiratory bronchioles

What structure is most important in keeping food out of the trachea?

Epiglottis

Which of the following is NOT a function of the respiratory system?

It helps to transport gases to tissues.

Where does the lower respiratory tract begin?

The trachea

The airway from the nose to the larynx is called the _________________.

upper respiratory tract

The major structure of the nose is due to the lateral and ____________ cartilages.

alar

The guard hairs of the nose are called __________________________.

vibrissae

A molecule of oxygen must pass each of these structures in order to get to the alveoi of the lungs. Which sequence is correct?

nose - throat - trachea - lungs

The nose is divided into right and left sides by the _________________.

septum

The largest of the external cartilages is called the ___________________.

lateral

Odors are detected by cells in the __________________.

olfactory mucosa

The projections from the inside of the nose are called _____________ .

Conchae

What is the name of the area that lies posterior to the choana and superior to the soft palate?

Nasopharynx

The largest of the laryngeal cartilages is the ______________ cartilage.

thyroid

What is the name of the laryngeal cartilage that completely encircles the larynx?

Cricoid

The attachment of the vocal folds posteriorly is to these cartilages. What are the names of these cartilages?

Arytenoid

The superior pair of laryngeal folds is called the _________________ folds.

vestibular

The opening between the vocal cords (folds) is called the ________________.

glottis

What is the name of the structure that connects the cricoid cartilage to the primary bronchi?

Trachea

The point of division of the trachea into the right and left primary bronchi is called the _______________.

carina

The walls of the primary, secondary and tertiary bronchi all contain _____________________.

cartilage

The epithelium of the bronchioles contains _____________________.

cilia

The functional units for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide are the ___________________________.

alveolar sacs

The major muscle for inspiration is the __________________.

diaphragm

Which cells produce pulmonary surfactant?

Type II alveolar cells

What is the condition where the lung totally or partially collapses?

Atelectasis

What procedure might be necessary if the upper respiratory tract becomes blocked?

Tracheotomy

What would cause bronchodilation?

Sympathetic nerves

Why are there rings of hyaline cartilage in the trachea?

To keep the passageway open for the continuous flow of air.

Which is a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)?

Asthma
Chronic bronchitis
Emphysema

The cessation of breathing for 10 seconds or longer during sleep is called sleep _____________.

apnea

A very common URI is also called _____________________.

acute rhinitis

Respiratory distress syndrome (RSD) in premature infants is most often due to __________________.

lack of surfactant

Damage to the brain stem and the automatic respiratory centers can produce an inability to remember to breathe called ______________.

Ondine's curse

The inspiratory and expiratory centers are located within the ________________ of the brain.

medulla oblongata

The major trigger to cause one to breathe is _____________________.

carbon dioxide levels

Which muscle is NOT used in active or labored expiration?

Scalenes

The membrane that covers the surface of the lungs is called the _______________.

visceral pleura

On one side of the respiratory membrane are the alveoli and on the other are ________________________.

capillaries

The great (type II) alveolar cells that are found in an alveolus repair the epithelium and secrete _____________________.

surfactant

The part of the lung that extends above the clavicle is called the ______________.

apex

The structures that enter and leave the lung do so by passing through an area called the __________________________.

hilum

The area of the lung that sets upon the diaphragm is called the ________________.

base

On the left side is a medial indentation of the lung for the _____________________.

heart

Throughout the nasal and bronchial tree this layer of _________________ is used to entrap particulate matter.

mucous

Normally the distance from the thyroid to the arytenoid cartilages is ________________.

longer in males

Parts of the pharynx

Nasopharynx
Laryngopharynx

Oropharynx

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