basic unit of structure and function of all living things
1. All organisms contain cells. 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of all living things. 3. Cells come from other cells.
Name the three parts to the cell theory.
discovered that cells come from other cells
What did Rudolph Virchow contribute to the cell theory?
first to see and name cells
What did Robert Hooke contribute to the cell theory?
created microscopes and observed the microscopic world
What did Anton van Leeuwenhoek contribute to the cell theory?
discovered that all plants consist of cells
What did Mathias Schleiden contribute to the cell theory?
discovered that all animals consist of cells
What did Theodore Schwann contribute to the cell theory?
advances in microscopic technology
What has helped with the progression of the cell theory?
different shapes, sizes, and functions
Explain how cells are different from each other.
all have cell membrane, contain genetic materials, perform the same life processes and contain / create same organic materials
Explain how all cells are the same.
prokaryotic and eukaryotic
Name the two basic cell types.
What kind of cells are found in bacteria?
What kind of cells are found in plants?
What kind of cells are found in animals?
What kind of cells are found in protists?
What kind of cells are found in fungi?
both contain cell membranes and genetic material and perform same life processes
Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Prokaryotes have no nucleus or organelles while eukaryotic cells have both
Contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
specialized structure that performs important fuction within a eukaryotic cell / "little organ"
selectively permeable double membrane with pores around the nucleus
a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
special boundary that helps control what enters and leaves a cell
largest organelle that is the control center of the cell
dense region inside the nucleus where assembly of ribosomes begins
stacks of flattened sacs that modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from ER for storage in cell or secretion outside the cell
small organelles filled with enzymes that digest materials that can be used by the rest of the cell
organelle that is used for storage of materials inside the cell
DNA bound on protein spheres
distinct, threadlike structures that contain genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
transportation system where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled, along with proteins and other materials
organelle where proteins are assembled
Rough has ribosomes attached to it while the smooth has no ribosomes
What is the difference between the two kinds of endoplasmic reticulums?
organelle that converts chemical energy in food into energy to be used by the cell
organelle that captures sunlight energy and converts it into chemical energy by photosynthesis
a symbiotic (mutual) relationship which involved one prokaryotic cell living INSIDE another prokaryotic cell, creating eukaryotic cells
mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA and can reproduce on own; they are similar in size to prokaryotes and metabolize in the same way
Name two pieces of evidence that support endosymbiotic theory.
microtubules and microfilaments that are supporting network of protein fibers that help cells maintain shape and move organelles
organelle found near the nucleus that helps organize the cell during cell division
plant cells have a cell wall, no centrioles, one huge vacuole, and chloroplasts while animal cells have no cell wall, contain centrioles, have many small vacuoles and mitochondria to make energy
Name two differences between a plant cell and an animal cell.
support cell and regulate what enters and leaves the cell
What is the function of the cell membrane?
provides support and protection
What is the function of the cell wall?
composed of two layers of phospholipids with protein channels embedded throughout
Describe the structure of the cell membrane.
hold organelles in place and keep the shape of the cell
What is the function of the cytoplasm?
strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria
location where ribosomes are made
What is the function of the nucleolus?
control center for the cell
What is the function of the nucleus?
storage areas inside the cell
What is the function of the vacuoles?
regulates what enters and leaves the nucleus
What is the function of the nuclear membrane?
contains enzymes that destroy worn out or damaged organelles
What is the function of the lysosomes?
modify, sort and package proteins and lipids for transport out of the cell (UPS / Fed Ex)
What is the function of the Golgi apparatus?
transportation system to move proteins, lipids, and other materials from the nucleus to the outside of the cell
What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
hold cell shape, hold organelles in place, and move organelles around the cell
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
helps organize the cell during cell division
What is the function of the centrioles?
releases energy stored in foods
What is the function of the mitochondria?
separate roles for each type of cell in a multicellular organism
cell, tissue, organ, organ system
Name the four levels of organization in multicellular organisms.
group of similar cells that perform a particular function
group of tissues that work together to perform a specific function
muscle, epithelial, nervous, connective
Name two kinds of tissues.
heart, lungs, stomach, brain, kidneys, eyes, ears, pancreas, liver, intestines, bladder
Name three organs.
blood, connective, nervous, muscle, epithelial
Name two kinds of cells.
to convert light energy into stored chemical energy in foods
What is the function of the chloroplasts?
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
when the concentration of solute is the SAME throughout a solution
molecules are in CONSTANT motion so they bump and push one another
Why does diffusion occur?
movement of ANY particles from high concentration to low concentration because particles are "pushed" no energy is used
the higher the concentration the faster the rate of diffusion because there are more particle to move and collide
How does concentration affect the rate of diffusion?
the warmer the temperature the faster the particles move so the faster the rate of diffusion
How does temperature affect the rate of diffusion?
the higher the pressure the closer the particles are together the faster the rate of diffusion
How does pressure affect the rate of diffusion?
the larger the particles the slower the particles travel so the slower the rate of diffusion
How does the size of the particles affect the rate of diffusion?
if opposite charges as particle, "pulls" particle so faster diffusion / if same charge as particles repels particles so slower diffusion
How does the charge of the particles affect the rate of diffusion?
movement of WATER molecules from high concentration to low water concentration
pure water is highest concentration the more dissolved particles the lower the water concentration / water moves toward lower water concentration until equilibrium occurs
Explain how osmosis occurs.
solution with same concentration as what is inside the cell
solution with more water outside than inside the cell (low solute) so water moves inside the cell (cell can burst)
solution with less water outside than inside cell (high solute) so water moves outward and cell shrinks
movement of specific (large) particles across cell membrane using protein channels
protein channels get molecules and move them across the cell membrance
How does facilitated diffusion work?
energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against the concentration (from low to high concentration)
particles are pumped from low concentration and are packed on the high concentration side of the cell membrane
How does active transport work?
active transport that takes materials INTO the cell by infolding the cell membrane
active transport that uses extensions of the cytoplasm to surround and engulf large particles and take them INTO the cell
active transport by which a cell takes in LIQUID from the surrounding environment
active transport by which a cell RELEASES large amounts of material outward
reproductive, excretory, integumentary, endocrine, skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, lymphatic, digestive
Name three organ systems.
group of organs working together to perform a certain function