Radiology & Nuclear Medicine

104 terms by melaniew 

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Terms, drugs, procedures.

alpha particles

One of 3 types of radioactivity.

angiography

X-ray image (angiogram/arteriogram) of blood vessels and heart chambers is obtained after contrast is injected through a catheter into the appropriate blood vessel or heart chamber.

arthrography

contrast or air or both are injected into a joint and x-ray images of the joint are obtained.

anteroposterior view (AP)

X-rays travel from front x-ray source to back detector.

abduction

Movement away from the midline.

adduction

Movement towards the midline.

beta particles

One of 3 types of radioactivity.

barium sulfate

A radiopaque medium that is mixed in water and used for examination of the upper and lower GI tract. Is either swallowed or given in an enema.

barium enema (BE)

Lower GI series that opacifies the lumen (passageway) of the large intestine using an enema containing barium sulfate.

bone scan

A type of tracer study where 99m Tc (technetium) is used to label phosphate substances and then is injected intravenously. The phosphate compound is taken up by bone and the skeleton is imaged in 2 or 3 hrs (so most of compound is excreted in urine). Scan detects infection, inflammation, or tumors involving the skeleton (appear as hot spots).

Ba

symbol for barium.

computed tomography (CT)

Diagnostic x-rays at multiple angles thru a section of the body. Creates multiple views, especially cross-sectional. Scanner sensitivity is increased by using an iodine-containing contrast agent which outlines blood vessels. Used to detect bone disease and organs.

64-slice CT scanner

New ultrafast scanner that can product a 3-D image of a beating heart and surrounding blood vessels.

CT angiography

Using a 64-slice scanner, 3D images of heart are produced.

contrast studies

an x-ray study using a contrast medium injected to obtain a contrast with surrounding tissue and visualize a specific part, organ, tube or liquid as a negative imprint.

cholangiography

X-ray imaging after contrast is injected into the bile ducts.

cineradiography

Use of motion picture techniques to record a series of x-ray images during fluoroscopy. Brightens fluoroscopic images to obtain a permanent record of an x-ray or fluoroscopy.

color-flow imaging

An ultrasound technique projecting a brightly colored, high-velocity jet of material thru a passageway or organ.

C-spine

cervical spine films

CXR

Chest x-ray (film)

digital subtraction angiography (DSA)

X-ray image of contrast-injected blood vessels is produced by taking 2 x-rays (the first without contrast) and using a computer to subtract obscuring shadows from the 2nd image.

digital imaging techniques

Used to enhance conventional and fluoroscopic x-rays. Lower dose of x-ray is used. Beneficial when needing to send via networks for additional diagnostic input.

Doppler ultrasound

Records blood flow velocity (in diagnosing vascular disease) and image major blood vessels in patients at risk for stroke.

Decub

decubitus - lying down

DICOM

digital image communication in medicine - standard protocol for transmission between imaging devices (eg CT scans and PACS workstations).

DI

diagnostic imaging

double-contrast study

Uses both radiopaque and radiolucent contrast medium. Ex: walls of stomach or intestine are coated with barium and the lumen is filled with air. Radiographs show pattern of mucosal ridges).

echocardiography

Ultrasound imaging used by cardiologists to detect heart valve and blood vessel disorders.

eversion

Turning outward.

extension

Lengthening or straightening a flexed limb.

fluroscopy

X-ray procedure that uses an image intensifier (fluorescent screen) instead of a photographic plate to derive a visual image from the x-rays that pass thru the patient. The fluorescent screen glows when struck by x-rays. Advantage: internal organs can be observed in motion and patient's position can be changed constantly to provide the best possible diagnostic view. Opaque tissue (like bone) appear like a dark shadow image.

fluorescence

rays of light energy emitted as a result of exposure to and absorption of radiation from x-rays.

flexion

bending a part of the body.

FDG

fluorodeoxyglucose - A radiopharmaceutical used in PET scanning.

gamma rays

High-energy rays emitted by radioactive substances in tracer studies used as a diagnostic label to trace the path and uptake of chemical substances in the body. One of 3 types of radioactivity.

gadolinium (Gd)

Most commonly used contrast agent in an MRI exam. Enhances vessels and tissues, increases sensitivity for lesion detection, and helps differentiate between normal and abnormal tissues and structures.

Gallium scan

A type of tracer study where the radioisotope gallium 67 is injected intravenously and used in whole-body scans. Has an affinity for tumors, non-neoplastic lesions like abscesses, and areas of inflammation as occur in pneumonitis.

gamma camera

machine to detect gamma rays emitted from radiopharmaceuticals during scanning for diagnostic purposes.

67Ga

radioactive gallium

hysterosalpingography

X-ray record of endometrial cavity and fallopian. Obtained after injection of contrast material thru the vagina and into the endocervical canal. Determines the patency of the fallopian tubes.

half-life

the time required for a radioactive substance to lose half of its radioactivity by disintegration. This knowledge important in determining how long the substance will emit radioactivity when in the body. Must be long enough for diagnostic imaging but as short as possible to minimize patient exposure to radiation.

hysterosonogram

An ultrasound of the uterine cavity. Saline solution is injected thru a catheter inserted thru the vagina and into the endocervical canal to distend the uterine cavity.

ionization

a chemical process where the energy of an x-ray beam causes rearrangement and disruption within a substance so that previously neutral particles are changed to charged particles called ions.

iodine compounds

Radiopaque fluids containing up to 50% iodine used in: angiography, arthrography, cholangiography, DSA, hysterosalpingography, myelography, pyelography, and urography.

interventional radiology

Invasive procedures (therapeutic or diagnostic) performed by a radiologist under fluoroscopic, CY and MR guidance. Includes: percutaneous biopsies, placement of drainage catheters, drainage of abscesses, oculsion of bleeding vessels, and catheter instillation of antibiotics or chemotherapy.

inversion

Turning inward.

in vitro

"in the test tube" - Procedures involving analysis of blood and urine specimens using radioactive chemicals. Ex: radioimmunoassay combines use of radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect hormones and drugs in a patient's blood. Allows detection of minute amounts of substances or compounds. Used often to check digitalis levels.

in vivo

"in the body" - traces amounts of radioactive substances within the body. Given directly to the patient to evaluate the function of an organ or to image it. Ex: Tracer studies.

131I

radioactive iodine - used in thyroid, liver and kidney scans and for treatment of malignant and nonmalignant conditions of the thyroid.

IVP

intravenous pyelogram.

KUB

kidneys, ureters, bladder - x-ray image of these organs without contrast.

lateral view

Side-to-side. For example, In left lateral view x-rays travel from a source located to the right of the patient to a detector placed to the left of the patient.

lateral decubitus

Lying down on the side with x-ray beam horizontally positioned.

lung scan

A radiopharmaceutical is given intravenously or by inhalation of a gas or aerosol which fills the air sacs (alveoli).

liver and spleen scans

To visualize these organs, a radiopharmaceutical is injected intravenously & images are taken with a gamma camera. Liver scan can detect cirrhosis, abscesses, tumors, hepatomegaly and hepatitis. A spleen scan can detect splenomegaly due to tumor, cyst, abscess, or rupture.

labeled compound

Radiopharmaceutical; used in nuclear medicine studies.

LAT

lateral

LS films

lumbosacral spine films

L-spine

lumbar spine films

myelography

X-ray imaging of spinal cord after contrast injected into subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord. Usually performed on patients who cannot undergo MRI.

MRI

magnetic resonance imaging. Uses electromagnetic energy to produce saggital, coronal (frontal) and axial images. Performed with and without contrast. If using contrast, most common agent is gadolinium (Gd). Excellent soft tissue images. Detects edema in brain, direct image of spinal cord, detects tumors in chest and abdomen, visualizes cardiovascular system. NOT USED for patients with pacemakers or metallic implants.

MRA

magnetic resonance angiography.

MRV

magnetic resonance venography

MUGA

multiple-gated acquisitions (scan) - radioactive test to show heart function.

nuclear medicine

medical specialty that studies the characteristics and uses of radioactive substances in the diagnosis of disease.

nuclear medicine technologist

attends to patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures and operate devices under the direction of a nuclear physician.

oblique view

x-rays travel in a slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular plane. show regions or structures ordinarily hidden and superimposed in route PA and AP views.

pyelography

x-ray imaging of the renal pelvis and urinary tract. Contrast injected into a vein or thru a catheter placed thru the urethra, bladder, or ureter and into renal pelvis

prone

lying on belly (face down)

lung perfusion studies

scan using radiopharmaceutical that moves through the capillaries of the lungs. Helps to diagnose pulmonary thrombosis.

positron emission tomography (PET scan)

Radioactive technique that produces images of the distribution of radioactivity in a region of the body. Similar to a CT scan, but radioisotopes are used (via IV) instead of contrast and x-rays. Used to pinpoint areas of metabolic deficiency and organ function so useful in diagnosing stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer disease and brain tumors as well as abdominal and pulmonary malignancies.

PA

posterior-anterior

PACS

picture archival and communications system - replacement of traditional films with digital equivalents that can be accessed from several places and retrieved more rapidly.

PET/CT

both PET scan and CT are used to create 3D images.

radiology

specialty concerned with study of x-rays. Also called roentgenology.

radiologic technologist

allied health care professionals who work with physicians in the fields of radiology and nuclear medicine.

radiolucent

substance that permits passage of most of the x-rays. Ex: lung tissue - appears black. Also air (most transmission), fat, water & metal.

radiopaque

substance (like bones) that absorb most of the x-rays. These appear white on x-ray.

radiofrequency ablation (RFA)

removal of tumors and tissues (liver, kidney, adrenals) performed by interventional radiologists.

recumbent

lying down (may be prone or supine)

radioimmunoassay (RIA)

An in vitro procedure that combines the use of radioactive chemicals and antibodies to detect hormones and drugs in a patient's blood. Allows detection of minute amounts. Esp. helpful with checking digitalis blood levels.

radiopharmaceutical (or radiolabeled compound)

The combination of a radionuclide and a drug or chemical. Designed to concentrate in a certain organ.

radionuclide scanning

procedure of making an image to track the distribution of radioactive substance in the body.

radioisotope

Radioactive form of an element substance; radionuclide.

sonographer

Aid physicians in performing ultrasound procedures.

small bowel follow-through (SBFT)

Traces the passage of barium in a sequential manner as it passes through the small intestine. A type of contrast study.

sonogram

Record produced by an ultrasound.

supine

lying on the back (or face up).

single photon emission computed tomography

SPECT - IV injection of a radioactive tracer (like technetium-99m) and computer reconstruction of a 3D images based on a composite of many views. Used to detect liver tumors, cardiac ischemia, and evaluating bone disease of the spine.

transducer (or probe)

Handheld instrument that is placed near or on the skin, covered with a thin coating of gel, and emits sound waves in short, repetitive pulses. Used in ultrasonography.

technetium-99m

a pure gamma emitter with a half-life of 6 hours. The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic imaging.

tracer studies

A specific radionuclide is incorporated into a chemical substance and administered to a patient to evaluate the function of an organ or to image it.

Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi (Cardiolite) scan

this radiopharmaceutical is injected intravenously and traced to the heart muscle. If an exercise tolerance test (ETT) is used with it it becomes an ETT-MIBI scan.

Thallium (TI) scan

Thallium-201 (201Tl) is injected intravenously to evaluate myocardial perfusion. A high concentration indicated in a well-perfused heart muscle cells. Infarcted or scarred myocardium doesn't extract any thallium and shows up as "cold spots".

thyroid scan

usually iodine-131 is administered intravenously and scan revels the size and shape of thyroid gland. Hyperfunctioning thyroid accumulates higher amounts of 131I. Thyroid carcinoma doesn't concentrate the iodine well and is seen as a "cold spot".

tagging

Attaching a radionuclide to a chemical and following its path in the body.

therapeutic

Pertaining to treatment.

T-spine

thoracic spine.

urography

process of recording x-ray images of the urinary tract after introduction of contrast.

ultrasonography (U/S

Ultrasound imaging that uses high-frequency, inaudible sound waves that bounce off body tissues and are then recorded to give info about the anatomy of an internal organ.

uptake

Rate of absorption of a radionuclide into an organ or tissue.

UGI

upper gastrointestinal series

ventilation-perfusion scan (V/Q scan)

Radiopharmaceutical is inhaled (ventilation) and injected intravenously (perfusion) followed by imaging its passage through the respiratory tract.

x-rays' characteristics

1) ability to cause exposure of a photographic plate, 2) ability to penetrate different substances to varying degrees, 3) invisibility, 4) travel in straight lines, 5) scattering of radiation, 6) ionization.

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