What do all living things depend on to survive?
autotroph and heterotroph
Name the two groups of organisms based on how they obtain energy.
organism that makes its own food
What is another name for a heterotroph?
organism that obtains energy from the food it consumes
plant, bacteria, tree, shrub, flowers
Name three autotrophs.
What is another name for an autotroph?
impala, lion, human, cat, dog, fish, horse, cow, buffalo, mushroom, amoeba, paramecium
Name three heterotrophs.
adenosine triphosphate; principal chemical compound that living things use to store and release energy
5-carbon sugar (ribose) with nitrogen group adenine and three phosphate groups connected to it
Explain the structure of ATP.
process of adding or removing a PHOSPHATE from ATP or ADP
What is the ultimate source of all energy on Earth?
5-carbon sugar (ribose) with nitrogen group adenine and two phosphate groups connected to it
Explain the structure of ADP.
adenosine diphosphate; energy storage group that has only TWO phosphate groups
energy is held between the second and third phosphate - when bond is broken, energy is released and when bond is created, energy is stored
Explain how ATP stores and releases energy.
process by which plants and other autotrophs use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates
plants get material to grow from water (measured mass of dirt and 5 years later found no change in mass of dirt)
What did Jan van Helmont do for the understanding of photosynthesis?
grew plants in carbon dioxide and found they thrived
What did Joseph Priestley do for the understanding of photosynthesis?
discovered that plants releases oxygen only in sunlight
What did Jan Ingenhousz do for the understanding of photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H2O + light + chlorophyll --> C6H12O6 (sugar) + 6O2 (oxygen)
What is the chemical equation for photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and chlorophyll
What is REQUIRED for photosynthesis to occur?
glucose / sugar and oxygen
What is the end product(s) of photosynthesis?
What do pigments do?
principal pigment in plants and other photosynthetic organisms
chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b
What are the two kinds of chlorophyll in plants?
in the leaves in the chloroplasts
Where specifically in a plant does photosynthesis occur?
organelle that contains the pigment chlorophyll that captures sunlight
it has stacks of flattened sacs called thylakoids (stacks are called grana) and the space between the grana is called the stroma
Describe the structure of a chloroplast.
light-collecting unit or clusters of chloroplasts
light reactions and dark reactions / Calvin cycle
Name the two stages in photosynthesis.
oxygen gas (waste), ATP, and NADPH
What is the end product(s) of light reaction?
sunlight, water, ADP, NADP+
What is needed for the light reaction?
What is released as a waste in the light reaction?
light energy is used to split water into hydrogen and oxygen / energy remains with the hydrogen
Explain what happens during the light reactions.
Name an electron carrier.
carry high-energy electrons along with hydrogen from chlorophyll to other compounds
What do electron carriers do?
in the chloroplasts' stroma
Where does the dark reaction (Calvin cycle) occur specifically?
Where does the light reaction occur specifically?
the warmer it is it destroys the enzymes and doesn't work / the colder it is the slower the rate is / works best at a specific temperature
How does temperature affect photosynthesis?
the more water the more photosynthesis / the less water, the slower the process / necessary for first step in photosynthesis
How does water availability affect photosynthesis?
light is NOT required for this process to take place
Why is the second stage of photosynthesis called the dark reaction?
6 carbon dioxide, ATP, NADPH
What is needed for the Calvin cycle to occur?
the more minerals the greater the rate - up to a point - maximum / to little - photosynthesis can't occur
How does mineral availability affect photosynthesis?
the greater the light intensity (more light) the faster the rate (up to maximum) / at this point more light intensity won't do anything / the less light the less photosynthesis occurs
How does light intensity affect photosynthesis?
water availability, temperature, light intensity, mineral availability
Name two of the four factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.
two glucose molecules are created and 6 five-carbon compounds
What is the end result of the Calvin cycle / dark reaction?