Alsike clover and red clover MOA
hepatotoxicity and secondary photosensitization in horses only, hepatic encephalopathy
Avocado MOA in goats, horses, rabbits, and caged birds
Avocado MOA in horses, goats and rabbits
noninfectious mastitis and agalactia
Black walnut MOA
Moldy alfalfa, red clover, moldy wheat MOA
primary and secondary photosensitization
Grape and raisin MOA
acute renal failure only in dogs
Lily family MOA
nephrotoxicity only in cats; GI in cats and dogs
Red maple MOA
dried leaves: hemolytic anemia, hemoglobinemia, heinz body formation in horses
Senna (coffee, sicklepod) MOA
skeletal muscle myopathy, cardiomyopathy, cathartic
Yellow starthistle/russian knapweed MOA
equine nigropallidal encephalomalacia or chewing dz
Yellow starthistle/russian knapweed c/s
sudden onset of inability to eat or drink, drowsiness interrupted by excitation, head down, and dehydration
Macademia nuts c/s
weakness, esp in hind limbs, depression, ataxia, tremors, hyperthermia, lameness, recumbency, vomiting, colic, diarrhea, pale mm; full recovery in 2 days
Plants causing mechanical injury
cactus family, agave family, jimsonweed seed pods, cocklebur seed pods
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