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what is not an action of estrogen?

it does NOT mimic the symptoms of menopause

gastrulation is the process of...

developing 3 germ layers

which hormones oppose progesterone and induce labor?

oxytocin and estrogen

when the pH of ECF drops, the protein buffer system will manipulate an AA by...

binding an H+ to the amino group, raising the pH

Calcium reabsorption by the kidneys is promoted by the hormone...

PTH

what muscle moves the testes toward the body

cremaster muscle

sperm production occurs in the ...

seminiferous tubules

the primary follicle develops from the...

primordial follicle

the extraembryonic membrane that forms the FETAL portion of the placenta

chorion

the process of cell division that divides the cytoplasm of the zygote among blastomeres is called...

cleavage

what causes a prominent bulge in the surface of the ovary?

tertiary follicle

the ions in highest concentration in the ECF are...

sodium, chloride, bicarbonate

the extraembryonic membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac is the...

amnion

the release of ANPs from the heart will cause the body to...

decrease ECF, AND excrete sodium ions (both)

differentiation among blastomeres is the result of...

an unequal distribution of regulatory molecules in the cytoplasm of the ovum

the primary role of the carbonic-acid-bicarbonate buffer system is to...

limit pH changes by organic and fixed acids

the pituitary hormone that stimulates interstitial cells to secrete testosterone is...

LH

the principle cation in ICF is

POTASSIUM

sperm develop from stem cells called

spermatagonia

a blastocyst is a...

hollow ball of cells

exchange b/t the 2 main subdivisions of ECF occurs primarily at the...

capillaries

the surge in LH that occurs during the middle of the ovarian cycle triggers...

ovulation

which glands secrete fructose to nourish the sperm?

seminal vesicles/glands

during amphimixis

the male and female pronuclei fuse

which hormone is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volumes

natriuretic peptides (ANP and BNP)

in response to respiratory alkalosis...

the kidneys retain more H+ ions

ICF is found only within...

the cells of the body

which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion

aldosterone

the penetration of the endometrium by the blastocyst is referred to as...

implantation

which period of gestation is characterized by rapid fetal growth and fat deposition?

the 3rd trimester

the erectile tissue that surrounds the urethra is the...

corpus spongiosum

when water is lost in the ECF, but electrolytes are retained...

osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF

what is the order that sperm pass from the testis to the urethra?

epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra

hypoventilation leads to...

respiratory acidosis

the thick muscular layer of the uterus is the...

myometrium

sperm cannot fertilize an oocyte until they...

undergo capacitation

interstitial cells produce...

androgens

what is the best description for B lymphocytes?

produce antibodies in response to antigens

what controls the release of glucocorticoids?

ACTH

hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if...

an Rh-negative mother carries an Rh positive fetus

Acetylcholine slows the heart because...

it opens potassium ion channels in SA node cells

the chief differences b/t plasma and interstitial fluid involves the...

concentration of proteins

blood returning from the systemic circuit first enters the...

right atrium!

the pulmonary semilunar valve prevents backward flow into the...

right ventricle

steroid hormones...

bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells

contractions of the papillary muscles...

prevent the AV valves from reversing into the atria

what stimulates milk production?

PRL (prolactin)

each hemoglobin molecule contains...

4 iron atoms

liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called...

somatomedins

the visceral pericardium is the same as...

the epicardium

all circulating RBCs originate in the...

red bone marrow

in cardiac muscle, the fast depolarization phase of the action potential is the result of...

increased membrane permeability to SODIUM (NA+) ions

the c-cells of the thyroid gland produce...

calcitonin

the long plateau phase of the cardiac muscle action potential is due to...

calcium channels remaining open

RBC production is regulated by the hormone...

erythropoietin (EPO)

where does the reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place?

in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

what stimulates egg development in the ovaries?

FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)

Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland that is causing her to have a deep voice and to grow extensive body hair. This tumor involves cells of the...

zona reticularis

increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of...

cAMP

the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin is catalyzed by the enzyme...

thrombin

the waste product bilirubin is produced from...

heme molecules lacking iron

the link b/t a first messenger and a 2nd messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is usually...

a G-protein

drugs that block the beta-one andrenergic receptors will...

decrease heart rate

platelets are pinched off from giant multinucleated cells in the bone marrow called...

megakaryocytes

the extrinsic pathway of coagulation is initiated by the...

release of tissue factor (TF) by damaged endothelium

the first heart sound ("lub")...

is associated w/ the closing of the mitral valve

the innermost layer of the blood vessel is the...

tunica intima

compared to arteries, veins...

have thinner walls

when the diaphragm and external intercostals contract...

the volume of the thoracic cavity increases

most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the...

thoracic duct

the 3 main APC's (antigen presenting cells) are...

macrophages, dendritic cells, B cells

most of the carbon dioxide in the blood is transported as...

bicarbonate ions

the release of endogenous pyrogen (interleukin-1) by active macrophages would...

produce a fever

what factor would INCREASE the amount of oxygen released by hemoglobin to peripheral tissues

decreased pH (more acidic)

the blood colloid osmotic pressure depends mostly on the...

concentration of plasma proteins

the cells responsible for the circulating immunoglobulins (antibodies) are...

plasma cells

air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs is...

greater than the pressure in the atmosphere

stimulation of the aortic baroreceptors reflexly results in...

increased activity by the parasympathetic nervous system

the cells that kill cancer cells or virally infected cells are the...

NK cells

the layer b/t the tunica media and the tunica externa in a large artery is the...

external elastic membrane

for MAXIMUM loading (saturation) of hemoglobin w/ oxygen at the lungs, the...

pO2 should be high

when an antigen is bound to a class 1 MHC protein, it can stimulate a...

cytotoxic T-cell

elastic fibers in the walls of these vessels are stretched during systole

arteries

immunity is provided by...

B and T memory cells

how will respiratory minute volume be affected if tidal volume is kept constant and respiratory rate is increased?

respiratory minute volume will increase

elevated levels of the hormones ANP and BNP will produce increased...

salt and water loss through the kidneys

all types of T-cells are MHC restricted which means...

T-cells cannot recognize antigen unless it is presented by an MHC receptor

chief cells secrete...

pepsinogen

in transamination, the amino group of an AA is ...

transferred to a keto acid

the process of filtration is driven by...

blood hydrostatic pressure

chloride ion is reabsorbed in the ascending limb by...

cotransport with Na and K ions

an intestinal hormone that stimulates the gall bladder to release bile is...

cholecystokinin

one mechanism the kidney uses to raise systemic BP is to...

increase the secretion of renin by the juxtaglomerular complex

the overall function of the TCA cycle is to...

complete the oxidation of pyruvate

energy released by the electron transport chain is used to pump H+ ions into which location?

mitochondrial intermembrane space

the part of the digestive tract that plays the primary role in the absorption of nutrients is the...

jejunum

a drug that blocks the action of carbonic anhydrase in parietal cells would result in...

a higher pH during gastric digestion

most of the energy from glycolysis is...

in pyruvate

CO2 is released during which stages of cellular respiration?

oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl coA and the TCA cycle

if the plasma pH gets too high, the collecting duct will...

secrete bicarbonate ions into the tubular fluid and pump H+ into peritubular fluid

double sheets of peritoneal membrane that suspend the visceral organs and carry nerves, lymphatics, and blood vessels

mesenteries

the ability to form concentrated urine depends on...

the collecting duct and the loop of Henle/nephron loop

what cleaves trypsinogen into its active form?

enteropeptidase

podocytes are...

large cells that wrap around glomerular capillaries

the whole point of cellular respiration is...

to make ATP!

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