Lab 5: The Axial and Appendicular Skeleton

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8 Bones of the Cranium:

Frontal, 2 pariental, occipital, 2 temporal, spenoid, and ethmoid.

What functions do the cranial bones serve?

To protect the sense organs and the brain.

List the bones that form the eye orbit:

Zygomatic, maxilla, lacrimal, frontal bone, spenoid, ethmoid, and palatine.

How is the mandible different from the other bones in the skull?

The shape of the bone is different. It is the only bone that is attached to a joint and therefore movable. It is not really attached to skull at all.

Besides the skull, what are the other two components of the Axial Skeleton?

Vertebral Column and Thoracic Cage

What bone are you palpating when you touch your temple?

Temporal Bone

What are the five categories of vertebrae in your vertebral column?

Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral, and Coccyx

Why are lumbar vertevbrae particularly prone to injury?

They often take the stress of lifting and moving that is accomplished by our arms.

What us an intervertable disc? What is its function?

They are fibrocartilage discs that are designed to cushion the vertebrae and serve as "shock absorbers" for the column.

How are the sacrum and coccyx different from the other vertebrae?

They consist of multiple bones (vertebrae) fused together.

What is the overall function of the vertebrae?

It is the bodies major support mechanism. It protects the spinal cord and nerves from damage.

What bones make up the bony thorax?

Sternum, Ribs, and thoracic vertebrae

What is the function of the bony thorax?

It creates a protective barrier for the organs whithin.

What category of bones are the sternum and ribs?

Flat bones

Why are ribs 11 and 12 referred to as "floating" ribs?

They are attached indirectly to the sternum via shared cartilage.

What is the pelvix girdle and what is its function?

The pelvic girdle is formed by two coxal bones. They withstand stress of weight and locomotion. It attaches the lower appendages to the skeleton.

What is the pectoral girdle and what is its function?

Consists of the scapula and the clavicle (shoulder girdle). It attaches the upper appendages to the skeleton and is a major attachment for the major muscle of the neck and trunk.

Name the bones of the upper appendages (arm, forearm, hand)

Humerous, Radius, Ulna, Olecranon process, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges.

Name the bones of the lower appendages (thigh, leg, foot)

Femur, Patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals (talus and calcaneus), metatarsals, and phalanges.

Which of the four categories of bones do MOST of the bones of the appendicular skeleton fit into?

Long Bones

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