Separation of blood into its parts. It is performed to remove toxic substances or autoantibodies from the blood or to harvest blood cells. Leukapheresis, plateletpheresis and plasmapheresis are examples.
In this procedure, whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and, after appropriate testing to ensure a close match of red cell or platelet type, the whole blood or cells are infused into a patient (recipient). Also prior to transfusion, tests are performed to ensure that the specimen is free of blood-borne infections such as the hepatitis virus and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Autologous transfusion is the collection and later reinfusion of a patient's own (auto- mean self) blood or blood components.
bone marrow transplant
bohn MA-roh TRANS-plant
Bone marrow cells from a donor whose tissue and blood cells closely match those of the recipient are infused into a patient with leukaemia or aplastic anaemia. First the patient is given total-body irradiation or aggressive chemotherapy to kill all diseased cells and much of the normal bone marrow. The donor's marrow is then intravenously infused into the patient and it repopulates the patient's marrow space with normal cells. Problems encountered subsequently may be serious infection, graft versus host disease (immune reaction of the donor's cells to the recipient's) and relapse of the original disease (such as leukaemia) despite the treatment.