the era of prehistory that lasted from at least 2 million B.C. to about 9,000 B.C.; also called the Old Stone Age
12000-8000 BC, stone tools and implements improved
the period of time about 10,000 B.C., also called the New Stone Age.
belonging to or existing in times before recorded history
4000 B.C , first metal was copper, 3000 BC- commonplace, useful to agriculture and herding, found in middle east
latin for city, formal states, writing, cities, monuments, exhibit elaborate trading pattern and political terrorizes
Turkey, found 7000 BC, at 3000 BC civilization, 5500- production of tools and jewelry, 32 acres, ruled small communities
River Valley Civilizations
along rivers, aid agriculture, earliest began in m.east, basic tools, concepts, political forms, decline in 1000 B.C
valley of Tigris and Euphrates, mesopotamia, started from scratdch, accomplishments of sumerians
3500 BC- first writing case, astronomical sciences, religious beliefs, city states, silver, fertilizer
N.Africa, Nile,3000 BC, trade and influences from Mesopotamia, durablee instituions, math
2700 bc and onwards, pharaohs directed tombs, use of slaves
Indian River-Valley Civilizations
Indus River, 2500 bc, large cities(harappa), running water, trade with Mesopotamia, alphabet and artistic forms, destroyed by Indo-Euro
Chinese River Valley
Hwang He, isolated, overland trade with India and M.East, organized state, irrigation, 2000 B.C. had technology
rule of Hwang-Ho at 1500, managed construction of tombs and palaces, Zhou took over 1000 bc
semitic people influenced by Babylonians, monothestic, 1200 BC- influenctial of ME groups, near Med.,
Hunting and Gathering
The process of living that involves hunting for meat, gathering edible produce, and traveling frequently.
systems of belief that helped explain the enviorment and rules for various kinds of social behavior
a level of social organization normally consisting of between 20 and 30 people; nomadic hunters and gatherers; labor divided on a gender basis.
move in with wife's family
a period in human history, beginning around 3000 B.C. in some areas, during which people began using bronze, rather than copper or stone, to fashion tools and weapons
people with no permanent home; move from place to place in search of food,
newest human breed, orginated 120000 years ago in Africa
change in farming methods in 1600s that improved quality and quantity of farm products
based on or tracing descent through the female line
the taming of animals for human use.
Lived in Europe and Near East from 200,000 - 30,000 years ago. They became extinct a few thousand years after the arrival of Homo sapiens in Europe.
pre-agricultural culture; located in present-day Israel, Jordan, and Lebanon; practiced collection of wild barley and wheat to supplement game; large settlement sites.
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
Oldest Neolithic community in the West Bank between Israel and Jordan
the distinction made between social groups and persons on the basis of biological, physiological, and sociocultural factors, as sex, age, race, nationality, etc.
beginning of agriculture
Phoenicians dominate Mediterranean trade
Phoenician create first alphabet